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Concept: Dynamic programming


Smartphone positioning is an enabling technology used to create new business in the navigation and mobile location-based services (LBS) industries. This paper presents a smartphone indoor positioning engine named HIPE that can be easily integrated with mobile LBS. HIPE is a hybrid solution that fuses measurements of smartphone sensors with wireless signals. The smartphone sensors are used to measure the user’s motion dynamics information (MDI), which represent the spatial correlation of various locations. Two algorithms based on hidden Markov model (HMM) problems, the grid-based filter and the Viterbi algorithm, are used in this paper as the central processor for data fusion to resolve the position estimates, and these algorithms are applicable for different applications, e.g., real-time navigation and location tracking, respectively. HIPE is more widely applicable for various motion scenarios than solutions proposed in previous studies because it uses no deterministic motion models, which have been commonly used in previous works. The experimental results showed that HIPE can provide adequate positioning accuracy and robustness for different scenarios of MDI combinations. HIPE is a cost-efficient solution, and it can work flexibly with different smartphone platforms, which may have different types of sensors available for the measurement of MDI data. The reliability of the positioning solution was found to increase with increasing precision of the MDI data.

Concepts: Measurement, Machine learning, Hidden Markov model, Markov models, Dynamic programming, Location-based service, Viterbi algorithm, Forward-backward algorithm


This paper draws attention to a hardware system which can be engineered so that its intrinsic physics is described by the generalized Ising model and can encode the solution to many important NP-hard problems as its ground state. The basic constituents are stochastic nanomagnets which switch randomly between the ±1 Ising states and can be monitored continuously with standard electronics. Their mutual interactions can be short or long range, and their strengths can be reconfigured as needed to solve specific problems and to anneal the system at room temperature. The natural laws of statistical mechanics guide the network of stochastic nanomagnets at GHz speeds through the collective states with an emphasis on the low energy states that represent optimal solutions. As proof-of-concept, we present simulation results for standard NP-complete examples including a 16-city traveling salesman problem using experimentally benchmarked models for spin-transfer torque driven stochastic nanomagnets.

Concepts: Energy, Fundamental physics concepts, Physics, Operations research, Statistical mechanics, Travelling salesman problem, NP-complete, Dynamic programming


We propose SW#, a new CUDA GPU enabled and memory efficient implementation of dynamic programming algorithms for local alignment. It can be use as either a standalone application or a library. Although there are other GPU implementations of the Smith-Waterman algorithm, SW# is the only one publicly available that can produce sequence alignments on genome-wide scale. For long sequences, it is at least a few hundred times faster than a CPU version of the same algorithm.

Concepts: Algorithm, Computer, Computer program, Computer programming, Dynamic programming, BLAST, Smith–Waterman algorithm, Levenshtein distance


The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) website at the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI) is an important resource for searching and aligning sequences. A new BLAST report allows faster loading of alignments, adds navigation aids, allows easy downloading of subject sequences and reports and has improved usability. Here, we describe these improvements to the BLAST report, discuss design decisions, describe other improvements to the search page and database documentation and outline plans for future development. The NCBI BLAST URL is

Concepts: Bioinformatics, Computational phylogenetics, Searching, Sequence alignment, Dynamic programming, BLAST, FASTA, Smith–Waterman algorithm


MOTIVATION: Dynamic programming is ubiquitous in bioinformatics. Developing and implementing non-trivial dynamic programming algorithms is often error prone and tedious. Bellman’s GAP is a new programming system, designed to ease the development of bioinformatics tools based on the dynamic programming technique. RESULTS: In Bellman’s GAP, dynamic programming algorithms are described in a declarative style by tree grammars, evaluation algebras, and products formed thereof. This bypasses the design of explicit dynamic programming recurrences and yields programs that are free of subscript errors, modular, and easy to modify. The declarative modules are compiled into C++ code that is competitive to carefully hand-crafted implementations.This article introduces the Bellman’s GAP system and its language, GAP-L. It then demonstrates the ease of development and the degree of re-use by creating variants of two common bioinformatics algorithms. Finally, it evaluates Bellman’s GAP as an implementation platform of “real-world” bioinformatics tools. AVAILABILITY: Bellman’s GAP is available under GPL license from This website includes a repository of re-usable modules for RNA folding based on thermodynamics. CONTACT:

Concepts: Bioinformatics, Error, Computer program, Implementation, Programming language, Recursion, Dynamic programming, Compiler


Accurate haplotyping-determining from which parent particular portions of the genome are inherited-is still mostly an unresolved problem in genomics. This problem has only recently started to become tractable, thanks to the development of new long read sequencing technologies. Here, we introduce ProbHap, a haplotyping algorithm targeted at such technologies. The main algorithmic idea of ProbHap is a new dynamic programming algorithm that exactly optimizes a likelihood function specified by a probabilistic graphical model and which generalizes a popular objective called the minimum error correction. In addition to being accurate, ProbHap also provides confidence scores at phased positions.

Concepts: Algorithm, Mathematics, Model organism, Conditional probability, Programming language, Nuisance parameter, Bayesian statistics, Dynamic programming


Ghosting and seams are two major challenges in creating unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) image mosaic. In response to these problems, this paper proposes an improved method for UAV image seam-line searching. First, an image matching algorithm is used to extract and match the features of adjacent images, so that they can be transformed into the same coordinate system. Then, the gray scale difference, the gradient minimum, and the optical flow value of pixels in adjacent image overlapped area in a neighborhood are calculated, which can be applied to creating an energy function for seam-line searching. Based on that, an improved dynamic programming algorithm is proposed to search the optimal seam-lines to complete the UAV image mosaic. This algorithm adopts a more adaptive energy aggregation and traversal strategy, which can find a more ideal splicing path for adjacent UAV images and avoid the ground objects better. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the problems of ghosting and seams in the panoramic UAV images.

Concepts: Algorithm, Operations research, Optimization, Computer programming, Photography, Dynamic programming, Unmanned aerial vehicle


Disparity calculation is crucial for binocular sensor ranging. The disparity estimation based on edges is an important branch in the research of sparse stereo matching and plays an important role in visual navigation. In this paper, we propose a robust sparse stereo matching method based on the semantic edges. Some simple matching costs are used first, and then a novel adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is proposed to obtain optimal solutions. This algorithm makes use of the disparity or semantic consistency constraint between the stereo images to adaptively search parameters, which can improve the robustness of our method. The proposed method is compared quantitatively and qualitatively with the traditional dynamic programming method, some dense stereo matching methods, and the advanced edge-based method respectively. Experiments show that our method can provide superior performance on the above comparison.

Concepts: Algorithm, Research, Signal processing, Proposal, Computer programming, Stereoscopy, Failure assessment, Dynamic programming


A method is proposed for optimizing the performance of the APSOC (Adiabatic-Passage Spin Order Conversion) technique, which can be exploited in NMR experiments with singlet spin states. In this technique magnetization-to-singlet conversion (and singlet-to-magnetization conversion) is performed by using adiabatically ramped RF-fields. Optimization utilizes the GRAPE (Gradient Ascent Pulse Engineering) approach, in which for a fixed search area we assume monotonicity to the envelope of the RF-field. Such an approach allows one to achieve much better performance for APSOC; consequently, the efficiency of magnetization-to-singlet conversion is greatly improved as compared to simple model RF-ramps, e.g., linear ramps. We also demonstrate that the optimization method is reasonably robust to possible inaccuracies in determining NMR parameters of the spin system under study and also in setting the RF-field parameters. The present approach can be exploited in other NMR and EPR applications using adiabatic switching of spin Hamiltonians.

Concepts: Spin, Operations research, Control theory, Search engine optimization, Optimization, Optimal control, Gradient descent, Dynamic programming


During the appointment booking process in out-patient departments, the level of patient satisfaction can be affected by whether or not their preferences can be met, including the choice of physicians and preferred time slot. In addition, because the appointments are sequential, considering future possible requests is also necessary for a successful appointment system. This paper proposes a Markov decision process model for optimizing the scheduling of sequential appointments with patient preferences. In contrast to existing models, the evaluation of a booking decision in this model focuses on the extent to which preferences are satisfied. Characteristics of the model are analysed to develop a system for formulating booking policies. Based on these characteristics, two types of approximate dynamic programming algorithms are developed to avoid the curse of dimensionality. Experimental results suggest directions for further fine-tuning of the model, as well as improving the efficiency of the two proposed algorithms.

Concepts: Physician, Decision theory, Systems engineering, Choice, Preference, Numerical analysis, Dynamic programming, Bellman equation