SciCombinator

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Concept: Dynamic light scattering

170

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenol found in various plants, especially in the skin of red grapes. The effect of resveratrol on human health is the topic of numerous studies. In fact this molecule has shown anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering ability and beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, for many polyphenol compounds of natural origin bioavailability is limited by low solubility in biological fluids, as well as by rapid metabolization in vivo. Therefore, appropriate carriers are required to obtain efficient therapeutics along with low administration doses.Liposomes are excellent candidates for drug delivery purposes, due to their biocompatibility, wide choice of physico-chemical properties and easy preparation.In this paper liposome formulations made by a saturated phosphatidyl-choline (DPPC) and cholesterol (or its positively charged derivative DC-CHOL) were chosen to optimize the loading of a rigid hydrophobic molecule such as resveratrol.Plain and resveratrol loaded liposomes were characterized for size, surface charge and structural details by complementary techniques, i.e. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta potential and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Nuclear and Electron Spin magnetic resonances (NMR and ESR, respectively) were also used to gain information at the molecular scale.The obtained results allowed to give an account of loaded liposomes in which resveratrol interacted with the bilayer, being more deeply inserted in cationic liposomes than in zwitterionic liposomes. Relevant properties such as the mean size and the presence of oligolamellar structures were influenced by the loading of RESV guest molecules.The toxicity of all these systems was tested on stabilized cell lines (mouse fibroblast NIH-3T3 and human astrocytes U373-MG), showing that cell viability was not affected by the administration of liposomial resveratrol.

Concepts: Electron, Electric charge, Molecule, Scattering, Resveratrol, Polyphenol antioxidant, Polyphenol, Dynamic light scattering

138

Two O/W forskolin-loaded nano-emulsions (0.075% wt.) based on medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and stabilized by a nonionic surfactant (Polysorbate 80 or Polysorbate 40) were studied as forskolin delivery systems. The nano-emulsions were prepared by the PIC method. The mean droplet size of the nano-emulsions with Polysorbate 80 and Polysorbate 40 with oil/surfactant (O/S) ratios of 20/80 and 80% water concentration, measured by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), was of 118 nm and 111 nm, respectively. Stability of the formulations, as assessed by light backscattering for 24 h, showed that both nano-emulsions were stable at 25ºC. Studies of forskolin in vitro skin permeation from the nano-emulsions and from a triglyceride solution were carried out at 32ºC, using Franz-type diffusion cells. A mixture of PBS/ethanol (60/40 v/v) was used as a receptor solution. The highest flux and permeability coefficient was obtained for the system stabilized with Polysorbate 80 (6.91±0.75 µg·cm-2·h-1 and 9.21·10-3±1.00·10-3 cm·h-1, respectively) but no significant differences were observed with the flux and permeability coefficient value of forskolin dissolved in oil. The obtained results showed that the nano-emulsions developed in this study could be used as effective carriers for topical administration of forskolin.

Concepts: Fatty acid, Surfactant, Colloidal chemistry, Light scattering, Dynamic light scattering, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20

55

Successful commercialization of wearable diagnostic sensors necessitates stability in detection of analytes over prolonged and continuous exposure to sweat. Challenges are primarily in ensuring target disease specific small analytes (i.e. metabolites, proteins, etc.) stability in complex sweat buffer with varying pH levels and composition over time. We present a facile approach to address these challenges using RTILs with antibody functionalized sensors on nanoporous, flexible polymer membranes. Temporal studies were performed using both infrared spectroscopic, dynamic light scattering, and impedimetric spectroscopy to demonstrate stability in detection of analytes, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Cortisol, from human sweat in RTILs. Temporal stability in sensor performance was performed as follows: (a) detection of target analytes after 0, 24, 48, 96, and 168 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization; and (b) continuous detection of target analytes post-antibody sensor functionalization. Limit of detection of IL-6 in human sweat was 0.2 pg/mL for 0-24 hours and 2 pg/mL for 24-48 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization. Continuous detection of IL-6 over 0.2-200 pg/mL in human sweat was demonstrated for a period of 10 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization. Furthermore, combinatorial detection of IL-6 and Cortisol in human sweat was established with minimal cross-talk for 0-48 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Scattering, PH, Ionic liquid, Sensors, Light scattering, Dynamic light scattering, Rayleigh scattering

28

Dynamic light scattering based sensor for glucose was developed with oligonucleotide functionalized gold nanoparticles (Oligo-AuNPs). Oligonucleotide 5'-SH-(A)(12)-AGACAAGAGAGG-3' (Oligo 1) modified AuNPs and oligonucleotide 5'-CAACAGAGAACG-(A)(12)-HS-3' (Oligo 2) modified AuNPs could hybridize with oligonulceotide 5'-CGTTCTCTGTTGCCTCTCTTGTCT-3' (Oligo 3), which resulted in the aggregation of Oligo-AuNPs probes, and triggered the increase of their average diameter. However, Oligo 3 could be cleaved into DNA fragments by the mixture of glucose, glucose oxidase (GOD) and Fe(2+), and the DNA fragments could not hybridize with Oligo-AuNPs probes. Under the conditions of 3.7 nM Oligo 1-AuNPs, 3.7 nM Oligo 2-AuNPs, 8.0 μg/mL GOD, 100 nM Oligo 3 and 900 nM Fe(2+), the average diameter of Oligo-AuNPs probes decreased linearly with the increasing concentration of glucose over the range from 50 pmol/L to 5.0 nmol/L, with a detection limit of 38 pmol/L (3σ/slope). Moreover, five sugars had no effect on the average diameter of mixture of Oligo-AuNPs probes, GOD and Fe(2+), which demonstrated the good selectivity of the assay.

Concepts: Nanoparticle, Scattering, Nanotechnology, Gold, Light scattering, Dynamic light scattering, Rayleigh scattering, Static light scattering

28

Pluronic F127/poly(aspartic acid) mixtures were investigated in dilute solutions by viscometry and dynamic light scattering. The two polymers were chosen due to well known applications in biomedical field, taking into account the final purpose (the use of the complex structure as drug delivery systems). The central item was to identify the possibility of complexation between the poly(carboxylic acid) and a non-ionic polymer and to investigate the conditions of the interpolymer complex formation. The ability of Pluronic F127 to form micelle is well known. Poly(aspartic acid), as a polycarboxylic acid with resemblance with polyacrylic acid, can act as dispersant, antiscalant, superabsorber, being also able to form micelles. Due to its functional groups, COOH and NH(2), poly(aspartic acid) can make physical and/or chemical bonds with other macromolecular compounds. The intrinsic viscosity and the dynamic light scattering data obtained for PLU/PAS mixtures at 25°C have shown that interpolymer complex formation occurs around 1/1wt. ratio between the two polymers.

Concepts: Concentration, Chemistry, Chemical compound, Colloidal chemistry, Light scattering, Dynamic light scattering, Rayleigh scattering, Polymers

28

This research mainly deals with a novel flame-retardant and UV-protection for cellulosic fabrics using ZnO nanoparticles. We present the preparation and application of ZnO nanoparticles. The size of the prepared nanoparticles was analysed using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The application of nano ZnO on cellulosic fabrics (cotton 100% and cotton/cotton polyester 65/35%) was achieved by using different polycarboxilic acids (succinic acid [SA] and 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxilic acids [BTCA]) with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as catalyst through conventional pad-dry-cure method. The effect of concentration of SHP on the physical properties, flammability and UV-protection of cross-linked fabrics are investigated. The effect of concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the effect of curing temperature were also investigated. The results revealed the importance of SHP in increasing the flame-redundancy of the treated cellulosic fabrics.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Zinc, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Textile, Sunscreen, Light scattering, Dynamic light scattering

28

The influence of shape on nanomaterial aggregation and deposition was systematically studied with poly-acrylic acid (PAA) coated uniform-sized gold nanospheres (AuNSs) and nanorods (AuNRs). Time resolved dynamic light scattering was employed to study their aggregation kinetics in a wide range of mono- and di-valent electrolyte conditions. Results indicated that PAA coated AuNSs have higher aggregation propensity compared to anisotropic PAA coated AuNRs, as observed through critical coagulation concentration (CCC). The CCC values were estimated as 50mM NaCl and 1.8mM CaCl(2) for AuNS, which showed substantial increase to 250mM NaCl and 7mM CaCl(2) for anisotropic AuNRs. Though electrokinetic behavior showed similar surface potential for the spherical and rod-shaped materials, the geometric differences between the samples have likely resulted in unique conformation of the PAA coatings, leading to different magnitudes of steric hindrances and hence yielding the observed aggregation behavior. The deposition kinetics was monitored using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. AuNRs showed relatively slower deposition compared to AuNSs for low electrolytes concentrations. With the increase in electrolyte concentration, the differences in deposition rates between spheres and rods diminished. The results from this study showed that the shape of nanomaterials can influence interfacial properties and result in unique aggregation and deposition behavior under typical aquatic conditions.

Concepts: Nanoparticle, Electrochemistry, Nanotechnology, Nanomaterials, Electrolyte, Quartz, Light scattering, Dynamic light scattering

28

The terminal hydroxyl groups of amphiphilic multiarm star copolymers with a hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) core and hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) arms were partially or completely transformed into the radical-crosslinkable methacrylate (MA) groups (PEI-b-PCL-MA). The resulting PEI-b-PCL-MA polymers with 100% MA substitution self-assembled in water into simple vesicles, whereas those with partial MA substitution aggregated into complex vesicles. These structures could be proved by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering only after crosslinking the intra-vesicular MA groups that generated the covalently stabilized vesicles (CSVs). The obtained CSVs could be used as host for the formation of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) cluster, and the AuNP clusters stabilized by the CSVs were stable under a wider range of CSV/AuNP feed ratio than those stabilized by the uncrosslinked precursors. The diameter of AuNPs in the clusters was in the range of 4-6 nm, and the distance of adjacent AuNPs could be modulated through altering the feed ratio of CSV/AuNP. The color of the solutions of AuNPs with CSV could be tuned from brown to red, purple, even blue. The composites of CSV and AuNPs could be further used as nanocarriers to accommodate hydrophobic guest of pyrene, and a higher amount of AuNPs in the nanocarriers led to a lower encapsulation capacity for pyrene guests.

Concepts: Electron, Nanoparticle, Nanotechnology, Gold, Scientific techniques, Light scattering, Dynamic light scattering, Rayleigh scattering

28

Two kinds of core-shell structured multifunctional nanocarriers of gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) as core and folate (FA)-conjugated amphiphilic hyperbranched block copolymer as shell based on poly(l-lactide) (PLA) inner arm and FA-conjugated sulfated polysaccharide (GPPS-FA) outer arm (Au NCs-PLA-GPPS-FA) were synthesized for targeted anticancer drug delivery. The structure and properties of Au NCs-PLA-GPPS-FA copolymers were characterized and determined by (1)H NMR spectrum, FT-IR spectra, dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses. The anticancer drug, camptothecin (CPT) was used as a hydrophobic model anticancer drug. In vitro, two kinds of the nanocarriers presented a relatively rapid release in the first stage (up to 1 h) followed by a sustained release period (up to 15 h), and then reached a plateau at pH 5.3, 7.4, and 9.6. The release results indicated that CPT release from two kinds of the nanocarriers at pH 9.6 was much greater than that at both pH 5.3 and 7.4. The cytotoxicity studies showed that the CPT-loaded nanocarriers provided high anticancer activity against Hela cells. Furthermore, nanocarriers gained specificity to target some cancer cells because of the enhanced cell uptake mediated by FA moiety. The fluorescent images studies showed that the nanocarriers could track at the cellular level for advance therapy. The results indicated that the Au NCs-PLA-GPPS-FA copolymers not only had great potential as tumor-targeted drug delivery carrier, but also had an assistant role in the treatment of cancer.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Spectroscopy, Cancer, Polymer, Copolymer, Dynamic light scattering

28

Concanavalin A (Con A) binding fraction of human seminal plasma is vital as it shows decapacitating activity and contains proteins which have critical roles in fertility related processes. Con A binding proteins were isolated by lectin affinity chromatography. These proteins form high molecular weight aggregates at near physiological pH (7.0) as inferred by gel filtration. Aggregation analysis was performed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS analysis was also performed at different pH values and in presence of various additives including NaCl, EDTA, cholesterol and sugars, such as D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannose to identify their effect on aggregation size. The results indicate that degree of aggregation was highly reduced in presence of D-fructose, EDTA and at lower and higher pH values as depicted by lowering of hydrodynamic radii. This aggregation behaviour might be decisive for fertility related events with a suggestive role towards inhibition of premature capacitation.

Concepts: Proteins, Molecular biology, Glucose, PH, Light scattering, Dynamic light scattering, Concanavalin A, Lectin