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Concept: Drying


Patchouli is used as an incense material and essential oil. The characteristic odor of patchouli leaves results from the drying process used in their production; however, there have to date been no reports on the changes in the odor of patchouli leaves during the drying process. We investigated the aroma profile of dried patchouli leaves using the hexane extracts of fresh and dried patchouli leaves. We focused on the presence or absence of the constituents of the fresh and dried extracts, and the differences in the content of the common constituents. Fourteen constituents were identified as characteristic of dried patchouli extract odor by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The structures of seven of the 14 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (α-patchoulene, seychellene, humulene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, caryophyllene oxide, and patchouli alcohol). The aroma profile of the essential oil obtained from the dried patchouli leaves was clearly different from that of dried patchouli. The aroma profile of the essential oil was investigated by a similar method. We identified 12 compounds as important odor constituents. The structures of nine of the 12 constituents were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (cis-thujopsene, caryophyllene, α-guaiene, α-patchoulene, seychellene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, patchouli alcohol, and corymbolone). Comparing the odors and constituents demonstrated that the aroma profile of patchouli depends on the manufacturing process.

Concepts: Olfaction, Drying, Perfume, Odor, Essential oil, Aroma compound, Aromatherapy, Patchouli


BACKGROUND: Intraabdominal peritoneal onlay polypropylene (PP) mesh repair of incisional hernia has the potential risk of adhesions, bowel obstructions, and intestinal fistulae. Fresh or cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (HAM) has been tested as an antiadherent layer in animals, with excellent outcomes. However, it has disadvantages: it is difficult to handle, and it is expensive to store. Another processing method is available: drying in a laminar flow hood and gamma irradiation. Because this method impairs the membrane’s cell viability, it may affect its antiadherent properties. However, such properties may also result from the collagen matrix and its basement membrane, which remain after drying. The aim of the present study was to asses dried irradiated HAM in adhesion prophylaxis in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four female rats were randomized into two groups. In the first group (control group), PP meshes were placed in the intraabdominal space, and in the second group (treatment group), PP meshes coated with HAM were used. Animals were killed on day 30 after surgery. Adhesions and parietal prosthetic incorporation were assessed macroscopically and expressed as the average percentage of the covered area. The portion of the abdominal wall was then resected for histological testing. RESULTS: The treatment group had a significantly higher percentage of adhesions and parietal incorporation compared with the control group (p = 0.003). Histological testing showed a higher inflammatory response in the treatment group, with an intense foreign body reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Dried irradiated HAM does not prevent adhesion formation in intraabdominal peritoneal onlay PP mesh repair in rats. Any use of this biomaterial in adhesion prophylaxis must be undertaken respecting graft cell viability as much as possible.

Concepts: Food irradiation, Collagen, Bowel obstruction, Polypropylene, Drying, Abdomen, Irradiation, Laminar flow cabinet


The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20% v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70°C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF(1μm/ED)) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform.

Concepts: Electron, Drying, Dosage forms, Spray drying, Nano spray dryer


PURPOSE: To develop spray dried mucoadhesive and pH-sensitive microspheres (MS) based on polymethacrylate salt intended for vaginal delivery of tenofovir (a model HIV microbicide) and assess their critical biological responses. METHODS: The formulation variables and process parameters are screened and optimized using a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design. The MS are characterized for size, zeta potential, yield, encapsulation efficiency, Carr’s index, drug loading, in vitro release, cytotoxicity, inflammatory responses and mucoadhesion. RESULTS: The optimal MS formulation has an average size of 4.73 μm, Zeta potential of -26.3 mV, 68.9% yield, encapsulation efficiency of 88.7%, Carr’s index of 28.3 and drug loading of 2% (w/w). The MS formulation can release 90% of its payload in the presence of simulated human semen. At a concentration of 1 mg/ml, the MS are noncytotoxic to vaginal endocervical/epithelial cells and Lactobacillus crispatus when compared to control media. There is also no statistically significant level of inflammatory cytokine (IL1-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10) release triggered by MS. The mucoadhesive property of MS formulation is 2-fold higher than that of 1% HEC gel formulation. CONCLUSION: These data suggest the promise of using such MS as an alternative controlled microbicide delivery template by intravaginal route for HIV prevention.

Concepts: Childbirth, Sexual intercourse, Statistical significance, Colloid, Semen, Drying, Statistical theory, Pre-ejaculate


Graphene oxide (GO) has recently become an attractive building block for fabricating graphene-based functional materials. GO films and fibers have been prepared mainly by vacuum filtration and wet spinning. These materials exhibit relatively high Young’s moduli but low toughness and a high tendency to tear or break. Here, we report an alternative method, using bar coating and drying of water/GO dispersions, for preparing large area GO thin films (e.g. 800-1200 cm(2) or larger) with an outstanding mechanical behavior and excellent tear resistance. These dried films were subsequently scrolled to prepare GO fibers with extremely large elongation to fracture (up to 76 %), high toughness (up to 17 J/m(3)) and attractive macroscopic properties, such as uniform circular cross section, smooth surface, and great knotability. This method is simple and after thermal reduction of the GO material, it can render highly electrically conducting graphene-based fibers with values up to 416 S/cm at room temperature. In this context, GO fibers annealed at 2000 °C were also successfully used as electron field emitters operating at low turn on voltages of ca. 0.48 V/μm and high current densities (5.3 A/cm(2)). Robust GO fibers and large-area films with fascinating architectures and outstanding mechanical and electrical properties were prepared bar coating followed by dry film scrolling.

Concepts: Electric charge, Electricity, Fundamental physics concepts, Continuum mechanics, Graphene, Materials science, Drying, Film


We look at the drying process in a simple glass channel with dominant capillary effects as is the case in microfluidics. We find drying kinetics commonly observed for confined geometry, namely a constant period followed by a falling rate period. From visualization of the air/water interface with high resolution, we observe that the drying rate decreases without a drying front progression although this is the usually accepted mechanism for confined geometries. We show with FEM that in our specific geometry the falling rate period is due to changes in the shape of the air-water interface at the free surface where most evaporation occurs. Our simulations show that the sensitivity of the drying rate to the shape of the first air-water interface from the sample free surface implies that slight changes of the wetting or pinning conditions can significantly modify the drying rate.

Concepts: Scientific method, Observation, Computer graphics, Philosophy of science, Liquid, Surface tension, Drying, Evaporation


Formulation composition and processing conditions can be adjusted to enhance the structural integrity as well as the bioactivity of proteins in the spray drying process. In this study, lysozyme was chosen as a model pharmaceutical protein to study these aspects when spray drying from water-ethanol mixtures. The effect of formulation additives (trehalose, Tween 20 and phosphate-buffered saline) and processing conditions (inlet temperature and storage time of lysozyme in the feed solution before the spray drying process) on the protein bioactivity was investigated. The results showed that the bioactivities of spray dried lysozyme with these additives were about 5-10% higher than that without additives. The bioactivity of the spray dried lysozyme was found to increase with a decrease in the inlet temperature from 130°C to 80°C, with similar findings when shortening the storage time of the feed solutions prior to spray drying. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Circular Dichroism (CD) results showed that the native structures of lysozyme were largely restored upon reconstitution of the spray dried powder in water after the spray drying process. This suggests that the bioactivity of lysozyme could be preserved adequately by optimization of both the formulation composition and process conditions even when spray drying from a water-ethanol mixture.

Concepts: Protein, Protein structure, Thermodynamics, Fourier transform, Drying, Fourier analysis, Circular dichroism, Spray drying


Persimmon is a very delicious fruit and the leaves of this tree are used as a traditional drug. This study aimed to investigate the effects of drying method (hot air and freeze-drying), extraction temperature (80, 90 and 100 °C) and extraction time (10, 30, 60 and 120 min) and harvest stage (flowering and fruiting) on the antioxidant contents and antioxidant activity of persimmon leaves. The results showed that the highest antioxidants were obtained in both methods of drying. Also, 100 °C for 120 min of extraction gave the highest antioxidant contents, but with no significant difference compared to 90 °C for 60 min of extraction. Persimmon leaves collected during flowering stage had the maximum amount of antioxidants compared to the fruiting stage. Finally, it can be said that persimmon leaves harvested during flowering stage and treated by hot air drying with these extraction conditions (90 °C for 60 min) are richer in bioactive compounds.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Effect, Statistical significance, Vitamin C, Drying, Tea, Persimmon, Tannin


Concealed damage (CD), is a term used by the nut industry to describe a brown discoloration of kernel nutmeat that becomes visible after moderate heat treatments (e.g. roasting). CD can result in consumer rejection and product loss. Postharvest exposure of almonds to moisture (e.g. rain) is a key factor in the development of CD as it promotes hydrolysis of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. The effect of drying moisture-exposed almonds between 45°C - 95°C, prior to roasting was evaluated as a method for controlling CD in roasted almonds. Additionally, moisture-exposed almonds dried at 55°C and 75°C were stored under accelerated shelf-life conditions (45°C / 80% RH) and evaluated for headspace volatiles. Results indicate that drying temperatures below 65°C decreases brown discoloration of nutmeat up to 40% while drying temperatures above 75°C produce significant increases in brown discoloration and volatiles related to lipid oxidation, and non-significant increases in Amadori compounds. Results also demonstrate that raw almonds exposed to moisture and dried at 55°C prior to roasting, reduce the visual sign of CD and maintain headspace volatiles profiles similar to almonds without moisture damage during accelerated storage.

Concepts: Protein, Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Thermodynamics, Lipid, Drying, Nut, Almond


Flower pollen is collected by honeybee foragers, adhered on their rear legs and transported into the hives in the form of pellets. Once in the hives, bee pollen is moisturised with nectar and bee mouth secretions and due to enzymatically modifications it becomes the so-called bee-bread, the protein reservoir of young bees. Bee pollen can be artificially removed from bee legs and collected by using specific systems, the bee pollen traps. Bee pollen is commercialized for human consumption as fresh product and after freezing or drying. Although bee pollen is nowadays largely consumed in developed countries, as food or food supplement according to local legislation, little is known on its safety related to microbiological hazards. In this work, we aimed to characterize for the first time the microbiological profile of Italian bee pollen in fresh, frozen and dried form collected along an entire harvesting season. Moreover, monthly microbiological analyses were performed on frozen (storage at -18°C) and dried (storage at room temperature) bee pollen over a 4 months period. Further aim of this work was the evaluation of the possible impact on production level of three different traps used for pollen collection. Our results on microbial contamination of fresh and frozen bee pollen show that a more comprehensive microbiological risk assessment of bee pollen is required. On the other side, dried pollen showed very low microbial contamination and no pathogen survived after the drying process and during storage.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Honey bee, Beekeeping, Drying, Flower, Honey, Apidae