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Concept: Drying


Patchouli is used as an incense material and essential oil. The characteristic odor of patchouli leaves results from the drying process used in their production; however, there have to date been no reports on the changes in the odor of patchouli leaves during the drying process. We investigated the aroma profile of dried patchouli leaves using the hexane extracts of fresh and dried patchouli leaves. We focused on the presence or absence of the constituents of the fresh and dried extracts, and the differences in the content of the common constituents. Fourteen constituents were identified as characteristic of dried patchouli extract odor by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The structures of seven of the 14 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (α-patchoulene, seychellene, humulene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, caryophyllene oxide, and patchouli alcohol). The aroma profile of the essential oil obtained from the dried patchouli leaves was clearly different from that of dried patchouli. The aroma profile of the essential oil was investigated by a similar method. We identified 12 compounds as important odor constituents. The structures of nine of the 12 constituents were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (cis-thujopsene, caryophyllene, α-guaiene, α-patchoulene, seychellene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, patchouli alcohol, and corymbolone). Comparing the odors and constituents demonstrated that the aroma profile of patchouli depends on the manufacturing process.

Concepts: Drying, Aromatherapy, Odor, Perfume, Essential oil, Olfaction, Aroma compound, Patchouli


BACKGROUND: Intraabdominal peritoneal onlay polypropylene (PP) mesh repair of incisional hernia has the potential risk of adhesions, bowel obstructions, and intestinal fistulae. Fresh or cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (HAM) has been tested as an antiadherent layer in animals, with excellent outcomes. However, it has disadvantages: it is difficult to handle, and it is expensive to store. Another processing method is available: drying in a laminar flow hood and gamma irradiation. Because this method impairs the membrane’s cell viability, it may affect its antiadherent properties. However, such properties may also result from the collagen matrix and its basement membrane, which remain after drying. The aim of the present study was to asses dried irradiated HAM in adhesion prophylaxis in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four female rats were randomized into two groups. In the first group (control group), PP meshes were placed in the intraabdominal space, and in the second group (treatment group), PP meshes coated with HAM were used. Animals were killed on day 30 after surgery. Adhesions and parietal prosthetic incorporation were assessed macroscopically and expressed as the average percentage of the covered area. The portion of the abdominal wall was then resected for histological testing. RESULTS: The treatment group had a significantly higher percentage of adhesions and parietal incorporation compared with the control group (p = 0.003). Histological testing showed a higher inflammatory response in the treatment group, with an intense foreign body reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Dried irradiated HAM does not prevent adhesion formation in intraabdominal peritoneal onlay PP mesh repair in rats. Any use of this biomaterial in adhesion prophylaxis must be undertaken respecting graft cell viability as much as possible.

Concepts: Irradiation, Drying, Abdomen, Collagen, Laminar flow cabinet, Food irradiation, Polypropylene, Bowel obstruction


The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20% v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70°C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF(1μm/ED)) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform.

Concepts: Drying, Electron, Nano spray dryer, Dosage forms, Spray drying


PURPOSE: To develop spray dried mucoadhesive and pH-sensitive microspheres (MS) based on polymethacrylate salt intended for vaginal delivery of tenofovir (a model HIV microbicide) and assess their critical biological responses. METHODS: The formulation variables and process parameters are screened and optimized using a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design. The MS are characterized for size, zeta potential, yield, encapsulation efficiency, Carr’s index, drug loading, in vitro release, cytotoxicity, inflammatory responses and mucoadhesion. RESULTS: The optimal MS formulation has an average size of 4.73 μm, Zeta potential of -26.3 mV, 68.9% yield, encapsulation efficiency of 88.7%, Carr’s index of 28.3 and drug loading of 2% (w/w). The MS formulation can release 90% of its payload in the presence of simulated human semen. At a concentration of 1 mg/ml, the MS are noncytotoxic to vaginal endocervical/epithelial cells and Lactobacillus crispatus when compared to control media. There is also no statistically significant level of inflammatory cytokine (IL1-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10) release triggered by MS. The mucoadhesive property of MS formulation is 2-fold higher than that of 1% HEC gel formulation. CONCLUSION: These data suggest the promise of using such MS as an alternative controlled microbicide delivery template by intravaginal route for HIV prevention.

Concepts: Drying, Pre-ejaculate, Colloid, Statistical theory, Sexual intercourse, Semen, Statistical significance, Childbirth


Graphene oxide (GO) has recently become an attractive building block for fabricating graphene-based functional materials. GO films and fibers have been prepared mainly by vacuum filtration and wet spinning. These materials exhibit relatively high Young’s moduli but low toughness and a high tendency to tear or break. Here, we report an alternative method, using bar coating and drying of water/GO dispersions, for preparing large area GO thin films (e.g. 800-1200 cm(2) or larger) with an outstanding mechanical behavior and excellent tear resistance. These dried films were subsequently scrolled to prepare GO fibers with extremely large elongation to fracture (up to 76 %), high toughness (up to 17 J/m(3)) and attractive macroscopic properties, such as uniform circular cross section, smooth surface, and great knotability. This method is simple and after thermal reduction of the GO material, it can render highly electrically conducting graphene-based fibers with values up to 416 S/cm at room temperature. In this context, GO fibers annealed at 2000 °C were also successfully used as electron field emitters operating at low turn on voltages of ca. 0.48 V/μm and high current densities (5.3 A/cm(2)). Robust GO fibers and large-area films with fascinating architectures and outstanding mechanical and electrical properties were prepared bar coating followed by dry film scrolling.

Concepts: Graphene, Drying, Film, Continuum mechanics, Electricity, Fundamental physics concepts, Electric charge, Materials science


We look at the drying process in a simple glass channel with dominant capillary effects as is the case in microfluidics. We find drying kinetics commonly observed for confined geometry, namely a constant period followed by a falling rate period. From visualization of the air/water interface with high resolution, we observe that the drying rate decreases without a drying front progression although this is the usually accepted mechanism for confined geometries. We show with FEM that in our specific geometry the falling rate period is due to changes in the shape of the air-water interface at the free surface where most evaporation occurs. Our simulations show that the sensitivity of the drying rate to the shape of the first air-water interface from the sample free surface implies that slight changes of the wetting or pinning conditions can significantly modify the drying rate.

Concepts: Observation, Scientific method, Philosophy of science, Computer graphics, Liquid, Drying, Evaporation, Surface tension


The volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids profile from elderflowers (Sambucus nigra L.) was established for two cultivars by multidimensional gas chromatography. From 47 monoterpenic, 13 sesquiterpenes and 5 norisoprenoids components, 38 are reported for the first time on elderflowers. Elderflower seasonality implies proper handling and storage conditions, for further processing, thus the impact of freezing, freeze-drying, air drying and vacuum packing, was evaluated on these potential aroma metabolites. The most suitable preservation methods, regarding the total metabolites content, were vacuum packing and freezing for intermediary storage times (24-32weeks) with a reported overall decrease of the volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids of up to 58.6%; and freezing, for longer period (52weeks), with a decrease of up to 47.4% (compared to fresh elderflowers). This study presents the most detailed terpenic and norisoprenoids elderflower profiling, and linalool oxides were proposed as markers for a more expedite assess to the impact of postharvest conditions.

Concepts: Periodicity, Drying, Chromatography, Adoxaceae, Sambucus nigra, Vacuum, Sambucus, Food preservation


Studies on methods for fixing foods (with a slight loss of bioactive compounds) and obtaining attractive products are important with respect to current technology. The drying process allows for a product with highly bioactive properties. Drying of Physalis fruit was carried out in a conventional manner, and in a microwave under reduced pressure at 120 W and 480 W. After drying, the fruits were subjected to strength and rheological tests. Water activity, content of carotenoids and polyphenols and antioxidant activity as well as colour were also examined. The study showed that Physalis is a difficult material for drying. The best results were obtained using microwave drying at a power of 480 W. Physalis fruit microwave-dried by this method is characterized by higher resistance to compression than the fruit dried by convection. Dried fruit obtained in this way was characterized by higher contents of bioactive compounds, better antioxidant properties, and at the same time the lowest water activity.

Concepts: Fruit, Tomatillo, Dried fruit, Drying, Physalis, Thermodynamics, Physalis peruviana, Antioxidant


Chitosan (CS), an amino polysaccharide has fascinating scientific applications due to its many flexible properties. The advantages of Chitosan tend to increase when it was modified. Thus, in the present research work, to improve the properties of chitosan, it was converted into chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) through the ionic gelation method using sodium tripoyphosphate (TPP) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) as a crosslinker. The size optimization was done by varying the parameters such as crosslinker concentration, agitation method and rate, agitation time, temperature and drying method. The prepared samples were characterized using FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM and DLS. Also the prepared CS-NPs with TPP and SHMP had been evaluated in vitro for determining its hemocompatibility, biodegradability, serum stability, cytotoxicity and cell viability. The results showed the significant participation of all the parameters in obtaining the nanoparticles in 20-30nm and 5-10nm for CS-NPs-TPP air dried and freeze dried samples and around 60-80nm and 20-30nm for CS-NPs-SHMP air dried and freeze dried samples. The in vitro biological studies revealed that the nanoparticles are non-toxic with a good degree of biodegradability, blood compatibility and stability.

Concepts: In vitro, Drying, Freeze drying, Present, Thermodynamics, Time, Food preservation, Chitosan


Single layered Ti3C2(OH)2 nanosheets have been successfully fabricated by etching its Ti3AlC2 precursor with KOH in the presence of small amount of water. The OH group replaced the Al layer within Ti3AlC2 structure during etching process and Ti3C2(OH)2 nanosheets could be easily and efficiently achieved through a simple washing process. The delaminated single layered nanosheets are clearly revealed by atomic force microscopy to have several micrometers in lateral size. Interestingly, the exfoliated Ti3C2(OH)2 nanosheets could be restacked to form a new layer-structured material during drying process. When re-dispersing this restacked Ti3C2(OH)2 materials in water again, it could be re-delaminated easily only after shaking for several hours. The easy delamination and restacking properties, couple with intrinsic metallic conductivity and hydrophilicity make it ideal 2D building block for fabricating a wide variety of functional materials.

Concepts: OSI model, Alcohol, Functional group, Drying, Layer, Material, Electrical conductivity, Hydroxide