SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Drug

315

Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity.

Concepts: Drug, Drug addiction, Heroin, Occupational safety and health, MDMA, Illegal drug trade, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

257

The US Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act requires results from clinical trials of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs to be posted at ClinicalTrials.gov within 1 y after trial completion. We compared the timing and completeness of results of drug trials posted at ClinicalTrials.gov and published in journals.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Drug, ClinicalTrials.gov, Drugs, Food and Drug Administration

233

To describe the incidence of recorded mental illness and challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability in UK primary care and to explore the prescription of psychotropic drugs in this group.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Drug, Opioid, Psychoactive drug, Ketamine, Recreational drug use

199

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules are often forged in crisis. After the 1937 sulfanilamide disaster that killed more than 100 people, Congress passed the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), requiring drugs to be safe and properly labeled. In 1962, a requirement was introduced for proof of drug efficacy through “adequate and well-controlled investigations,” partly in response to the thalidomide tragedy. Rules protecting human-research subjects owe a debt to Tuskegee and Nuremberg. Sometimes it takes a disaster to spur the adoption of appropriate regulation. Today, compounding pharmacies are at the center of a controversy after a rare outbreak of . . .

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, Pharmaceutical drug, Food and Drug Administration, Pure Food and Drug Act, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Compounding, Drug Efficacy Study Implementation

188

Open source drug discovery offers potential for developing new and inexpensive drugs to combat diseases that disproportionally affect the poor. The concept borrows two principle aspects from open source computing (i.e., collaboration and open access) and applies them to pharmaceutical innovation. By opening a project to external contributors, its research capacity may increase significantly. To date there are only a handful of open source R&D projects focusing on neglected diseases. We wanted to learn from these first movers, their successes and failures, in order to generate a better understanding of how a much-discussed theoretical concept works in practice and may be implemented.

Concepts: Scientific method, Pharmacology, Drug, Pharmaceutical drug, Knowledge, Open source, Open content, Concepts

173

The currently used anthelmintic drugs, in single oral application, have low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura infection, and hence novel anthelmintic drugs are needed. Nitazoxanide has been suggested as potential drug candidate.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Randomized controlled trial, Drug, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Whipworm, Anthelmintics, Anthelmintic

168

Angioedema is the end result of deep dermal, subcutaneous and/or mucosal swelling, and is potentially a life-threatening condition in cases where the pharynx or larynx is involved. Drug-induced angioedema has been reported to occur in response to a wide range of drugs and vaccines. Drug-induced angioedema, like other cutaneous drug reactions, has been reported to be most frequently elicited by beta-lactam antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, although reliable data from epidemiologic studies are scarce. Recent reports suggested an increasing role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in the causation of life-threatening angioedema. ACEI-related angioedema is never accompanied by urticaria and occurs via a kinin-dependent mechanism. ACEI-related angioedema not only can start years after beginning the treatment, but it can then recur irregularly while under that treatment. Furthermore, allergy tests are unreliable for the diagnosis of ACEI-related angioedema, and so the relationship between angioedema and ACEIs is often missed and consequently quite underestimated. Accordingly, better understanding of the kinin-dependent mechanism, which is particular to angioedema, is necessary for the appropriate management of drug-induced angioedema.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Drug addiction, Penicillin, Angioedema, ACE inhibitor

161

Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIIα (PI4KA) is a host factor essential for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and hence is a target for drug development. PI4KA has also been linked to ER-exit sites and generation of plasma membrane phosphoinositides. Here we developed highly specific and potent inhibitors of PI4KA and conditional knockout mice to study the importance of this enzyme in vitro and in vivo. Our studies showed that PI4KA is essential for the maintenance of plasma membrane PtdIns(4,5)P2 pools but only during strong stimulation of receptors coupled to PLC activation. Pharmacological blockade of PI4KA in adult animals leads to sudden death closely correlating with the drugs ability to induce PtdIns(4,5)P2 depletion after agonist stimulation. Genetic inactivation of PI4KA also leads to death, however, the cause in this case is due to severe intestinal necrosis. These studies highlight the risks of targeting PI4KA as an anti HCV strategy and also point to important distinctions between genetic and pharmacological studies when selecting host factors as putative therapeutic targets.

Concepts: Protein, Pharmacology, Drug, In vivo, In vitro, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis C virus, Target Corporation

154

Rapid dissemination of information regarding adverse drug reactions is a key aspect for improving pharmacovigilance. There is a possibility that unknown adverse drug reactions will become apparent through post-marketing administration. Currently, although there have been studies evaluating the relationships between a drug and adverse drug reactions using the JADER database which collects reported spontaneous adverse drug reactions, an efficient approach to assess the association between adverse drug reactions of drugs with the same indications as well as the influence of demographics (e.g. gender) has not been proposed.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, The Association, Adverse drug reaction, Benzodiazepine, Pharmacovigilance, Inflection, Drug safety

151

This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China’s drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40 % price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives.

Concepts: Scientific method, Drug, Decision theory, Decision making software, Qualitative research, Price, Pricing, Suggested retail price