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Concept: Drowning


OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects of high-dose ulinastatin on the release of proinflammatory cytokines and lung injury in patients with aortic dissection after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). DESIGN: A prospective, randomized and double-blinded study. SETTING: A teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six patients with acute type-A aortic dissection undergoing cardiac surgery using CPB under DHCA. INTERVENTIONS: These patients randomly were selected to received total doses of 20,000units/kg of ulinastatin (n = 18) or 0.9% saline (control, n = 18) at 3 time points (after anesthetic induction, before aortic cross-clamp, and after aortic cross-clamp release). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6, interleukin 8 and polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase (PMNE) were measured after anesthetic induction (T0), 30 minutes (T1) after aortic cross-clamp, 3 (T2), 6 (T3) and 9 (T4) hours after weaning from CPB. Except for T1, pulmonary data, such as alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference, physiologic deadspace, peak inspiratory pressure, plateau pressure, static compliance and dynamic compliance, were obtained at the same time points. Concentrations of cytokines and PMNE were significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than the control group from T1 to T4, and peaked at T2 between the 2 groups. Compared with the pulmonary data of the control group at T2∼T4, postoperative alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference, physiologic deadspace, peak inspiratory pressure, and plateau pressure significantly were lower, and static compliance and dynamic compliance higher in the ulinastatin group. Significantly shorter intubation time and intensive care unit stay were found in the ulinastatin group. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose ulinastatin attenuates the elevation of cytokines and PMNE, reduces the pulmonary injury and improves the pulmonary function after CPB under DHCA. Consequently, it shortens the time of intubation and intensive care unit stay.

Concepts: Inflammation, Heart, Cytokines, Interleukin, Aortic dissection, Neutrophil granulocyte, Elastase, Drowning


The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical results of aortic repair with antegrade selective cerebral perfusion (ASCP) and mild-to-moderate hypothermia (MH) from 28 to 31°C comparing with previous series with hypothermia from 20°C to 27 °C.

Concepts: Aortic dissection, Drowning


PubMed/MEDLINE (1966-November 2014) was searched to identify relevant published studies on the overall frequency, types, and examples of medication errors during medical emergencies involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation and related situations, and the breakdown by type of error. The overall frequency of medication errors during medical emergencies, specifically situations related to resuscitation, is highly variable. Medication errors during such emergencies, particularly cardiopulmonary resuscitation and surrounding events, are not well characterized in the literature but may be more frequent than previously thought. Depending on whether research methods included database mining, simulation, or prospective observation of clinical practice, reported occurrence of medication errors during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and surrounding events has ranged from less than 1% to 50%. Because of the chaos of the resuscitation environment, errors in prescribing, dosing, preparing, labeling, and administering drugs are prone to occur. System-based strategies, such as infusion pump policies and code cart management, as well as personal strategies exist to minimize medication errors during emergency situations.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, First aid, Emergency medical services, Drowning, Respiratory arrest


Aquatic facility-associated illness and injury in the United States include disease outbreaks of infectious or chemical etiology, drowning, and pool chemical-associated health events (e.g., respiratory distress or burns). These conditions affect persons of all ages, particularly young children, and can lead to disability or even death. A total of 650 aquatic facility-associated outbreaks have been reported to CDC for 1978-2012. During 1999-2010, drownings resulted in approximately 4,000 deaths each year in the United States. Drowning is the leading cause of injury deaths in children aged 1-4 years, and approximately half of fatal drownings in this age group occur in swimming pools. During 2003-2012, pool chemical-associated health events resulted in an estimated 3,000-5,000 visits to U.S. emergency departments each year, and approximately half of the patients were aged <18 years. In August 2014, CDC released the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC), national guidance that can be adopted voluntarily by state and local jurisdictions to minimize the risk for illness and injury at public aquatic facilities.

Concepts: Medicine, Death, Age, United States, U.S. state, Ageing, Drowning, Swimming pool


Current guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasise that emergency medical service (EMS) dispatchers should identify sudden cardiac arrest (CA) with abnormal breathing and assist lay rescuers performing CPR. However, lay rescuers description of abnormal breathing may be inconsistent, and it is unclear how EMS dispatchers provide instruction for CPR based on the breathing status of the CA victims described by laypersons.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, First aid, Emergency medical services, Defibrillation, Drowning, Respiratory arrest


Unlike the successes for almost every other organ, resuscitation of the brain has been a fitful pursuit, punctuated by enthusiasm in early trials and subsequent disappointment. Even hypothermia after cardiac arrest, a seeming success, was tempered by a study in the Journal showing that cooling to either 33°C or 36°C gives the same results.(1) One strong point in the field had been the treatment of raised intracranial pressure, but trials involving patients with severe head trauma that were also published in the Journal have suggested that removing part of the skull to reduce intracranial pressure is ineffective(2) and that in . . .

Concepts: Brain, Traumatic brain injury, Cardiac arrest, Asystole, Skull, Intracranial hemorrhage, Drowning, Head injury


Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite significant advances in resuscitation science since the initial use of external chest compressions in humans nearly 60 years ago, there continues to be wide variability in rates of successful resuscitation across communities. The American Heart Association (AHA) and European Resuscitation Council emphasise the importance of high-quality chest compressions as the foundation of resuscitation care. We review the physiological basis for the association between chest compression quality and clinical outcomes and the scientific basis for the AHA’s key metrics for high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Finally, we highlight that implementation of strategies that promote effective chest compressions can improve outcomes in all patients with cardiac arrest.

Concepts: Death, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Drowning, Respiratory arrest, American Heart Association



OBJECTIVE: Few studies have reported factors that result in a better neurological outcome in patients with postcardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) following return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). We investigated the factors affecting neurological outcome in terms of both prehospital care and treatments after arrival at hospital in patients with PCAS. METHODS: The study enrolled patients with cardiogenic cardiac arrest who were admitted to an intensive care unit after ROSC with PCAS. We investigated the association of the following factors with outcome: age, gender, witness to event present, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed, ECG waveform at the scene, time interval from receipt of call to arrival of emergency personnel, time interval from receipt of call to arrival at hospital, prehospital defibrillation performed, special procedures performed by emergency medical technician, and time interval from receipt of call to ROSC, coronary angiography/percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and therapeutic hypothermia performed. RESULTS: The study enrolled 227 patients with PCAS. Compared with the poor neurological outcome group, the good neurological outcome group had a statistically significant higher proportion of the following factors: younger age, male, witness present, bystander CPR performed, first ECG showed ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia, defibrillation performed during transportation, short time interval from receipt of call to ROSC, coronary angiography/PCI and therapeutic hypothermia performed. Of these factors, the only independent factor associated with good neurological outcome was the short time interval from receipt of the call to ROSC. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, shortening time interval from receipt of call to ROSC was the only important independent factor to achieve good neurological outcome in patients with PCAS.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Ventricular fibrillation, Emergency medical services, Defibrillation, Emergency medical technician, Drowning


Many patients who suffer cardiac arrest do not respond to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There is growing interest in utilizing veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) in the management of refractory cardiac arrest. We describe our preliminary experiences in establishing an E-CPR program for refractory cardiac arrest in Melbourne, Australia.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Drowning, Respiratory arrest