Concept: Drama therapy
Abstract This article examines the practice of organization consultation using the adaptive leadership approach through a case example of a large system intervention in a peacemaking project in Nepal. The authors define core activities of the Adaptive Leadership model and provide parallels to psychodynamic group psychotherapy theory and technique that demonstrate how group therapists can apply their expertise to larger systems and arenas beyond the group therapy office.
Yalom and Leszcz (2005) indicated that interpersonal learning is a key therapeutic factor in group psychotherapy. In this study, we conceptualized interpersonal learning as the convergence over time between an individual’s and the group’s perception of the individual’s cohesion to the group. First, we developed parallel measures of: (a) an individual’s self-rated cohesion to the group (Cohesion Questionnaire-Individual Version [CQ-I]), and (b) the group’s rating of the individual’s cohesion to the group (CQ-G) based on the original Cohesion Questionnaire (CQ; Piper, Marache, Lacroix, Richardsen, & Jones, 1983). Second, we used these parallel scales to assess differences between an individual’s self-rating and the mean of the group’s ratings of the individual’s cohesion to the group. Women with binge eating disorder (N = 102) received Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Participants were assigned to homogeneously composed groups of either high or low attachment anxiety. Outcomes were measured pre- and post-treatment, and the CQ-I and CQ-G were administered every fourth group session. We found significant convergence over time between the CQ-I and mean CQ-G scale scores in both attachment anxiety conditions. Participants with higher attachment anxiety had lower individual self-ratings of cohesion and had greater discrepancies between the CQ-I and CG-G compared with those with lower attachment anxiety. There was a significant relationship between greater convergence in cohesion ratings and improved self-esteem at post-treatment. More accurate self-perceptions through feedback from group members may be a key factor in facilitating increased self-esteem in group therapy. Group therapists may facilitate such interpersonal learning, especially for those higher in attachment anxiety, by noting discrepancies and then encouraging convergence between an individual and the group in their perceptions of cohesion to the group. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Abstract Empathy has consistently been identified as an important quality of psychotherapists. Understanding unique ways that empathy emerges in group therapy may assist group therapists in fostering empathy. Rogerian and selected psychodynamic and interpersonal perspectives on empathy are discussed. Group psychotherapy poses a challenge for empathic responding, but also a rich opportunity for utilizing a more varied embodied approach to empathy.
Limited empirical attention has been devoted to individualized treatment objectives in intensive group therapy for personality dysfunction. This study investigated patients' ratings of distress associated with individual therapy goals - referred to as target object severity - in an intensive Evening Treatment Programme for patients with personality dysfunction.
Psychological mindedness is regarded as an important patient characteristic that can influence the course of psychotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between patients' capacity for psychological mindedness and aspects of the group psychotherapy process as experienced and rated by therapists and other group members. Participants were 110 patients who completed two forms of short-term group therapy for the treatment of complicated grief. Psychological mindedness was assessed at pretreatment by external raters using a video-interview procedure. Group therapists assessed patients' therapeutic work and therapeutic alliance following each group therapy session. Therapists and other group members rated each patient’s expression of emotion and provided appraisals of their cohesion to each patient throughout the course of therapy. Psychological mindedness was found to be positively associated with several group process variables as rated by the therapist and other group members.
Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy as group psychotherapy for chronically depressed inpatients: a naturalistic multicenter feasibility trial
- European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience
- Published almost 3 years ago
The Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) is a relatively new approach in the treatment of chronic depression (CD). Adapted as group psychotherapy for inpatients, CBASP is attracting increasing attention. In this naturalistic multicenter trial, we investigated its feasibility after 10 sessions of CBASP group therapy over a treatment time of at least 5 to a maximum of 10 weeks. Treatment outcome was additionally assessed. Across four centers, 116 inpatients with CD (DSM-IV-TR) attended CBASP group psychotherapy. Feasibility was focused on acceptance, and evaluated for patients and therapists after five (t1) and ten sessions (t2) of group psychotherapy. Observer- and self-rating scales (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 items, HDRS24; Beck Depression Inventory-II, BDI-II; World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment, WHOQOL-BREF) were applied before group psychotherapy (t0) and at t2. Dropouts were low (10.3%). Patients' evaluation improved significantly from t1 to t2 with a medium effect size (d = 0.60). Most of the patients stated that the group had enriched their treatment (75.3%), that the size (74.3%) and duration (72.5%) were ‘optimal’ and 37.3% wished for a higher frequency. Patients gave CBASP group psychotherapy an overall grade of 2 (‘good’). Therapists' evaluation was positive throughout, except for size of the group. Outcome scores of HDRS24, BDI-II, and WHOQOL-BREF were significantly reduced from t0 to t2 with medium to large effect sizes (d = 1.48; d = 1.11; d = 0.67). In this naturalistic open-label trial, CBASP, when applied as inpatient group psychotherapy, was well accepted by patients and therapists. The results point towards a clinically meaningful effect of inpatient treatment with CBASP group psychotherapy on depression and quality of life. Other potential factors that could have promoted symptom change were discussed. A future controlled study could investigate the safety and efficacy of CBASP group psychotherapy for inpatients.
Few group psychotherapy studies focus on therapists' interventions, and instruments that can measure group psychotherapy treatment fidelity are scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of the Mentalization-based Group Therapy Adherence and Quality Scale (MBT-G-AQS), which is a 19-item scale developed to measure adherence and quality in mentalization-based group therapy (MBT-G). Eight MBT groups and eight psychodynamic groups (a total of 16 videotaped therapy sessions) were rated independently by five raters. All groups were long-term, outpatient psychotherapy groups with 1.5 hours weekly sessions. Data were analysed by a Generalizability Study (G-study and D-study). The generalizability models included analyses of reliability for different numbers of raters. The global (overall) ratings for adherence and quality showed high to excellent reliability for all numbers of raters (the reliability by use of five raters was 0.97 for adherence and 0.96 for quality). The mean reliability for all 19 items for a single rater was 0.57 (item range 0.26-0.86) for adherence, and 0.62 (item range 0.26-0.83) for quality. The reliability for two raters obtained mean absolute G-coefficients on 0.71 (item range 0.41-0.92 for the different items) for adherence and 0.76 (item range 0.42-0.91) for quality. With all five raters the mean absolute G-coefficient for adherence was 0.86 (item range 0.63-0.97) and 0.88 for quality (item range 0.64-0.96). The study demonstrates high reliability of ratings of MBT-G-AQS. In models differentiating between different numbers of raters, reliability was particularly high when including several raters, but was also acceptable for two raters. For practical purposes, the MBT-G-AQS can be used for training, supervision and psychotherapy research.
The therapeutic alliance in individual and group psychotherapy is associated with treatment outcomes for a variety of disorders. However, debate persists about the centrality of the alliance in determining positive outcomes. We examined the alliance-outcome relationship across 20 sessions of emotionally focused group therapy (EFGT) for binge-eating disorder (BED). We hypothesized that (1) previous session alliance increase will predict lower subsequent session binge eating level while controlling for previous session binge eating level; and (2) previous session binge eating decline will predict higher subsequent session alliance level while controlling previous session alliance level. Participants were 118 individuals with BED who received 20 sessions of EFGT in 8 groups. Levels of binge eating and therapeutic alliance to the therapist were measured weekly. Linear growth in alliance during group therapy was associated with reduced binge eating at 6 months' posttreatment. We also found that the group’s and the individual’s alliance scores and binge-eating episodes were significantly associated across treatment, suggesting a mutual influence of the group’s and individual’s experience of the alliance with the therapist. Regarding the first hypothesis, previous session alliance increase was significantly associated with lower subsequent session binge eating. Regarding the second hypothesis, previous session binge-eating decline was not significantly related to higher subsequent session alliance. The findings provide evidence in a group therapy context for a model in which alliance change influences subsequent symptom levels, but not the other way around. (PsycINFO Database Record
Accessibility of psychotherapy for individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and retention in treatment are major concerns for the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Group therapy is a common method for improving access to psychotherapy; however, PTSD patients may prefer individual therapy. This study assessed whether initial treatment with individual versus group psychotherapy relates to subsequent psychotherapy adequacy among VA patients with PTSD. The sample consisted of all VA patients who received a new PTSD diagnosis during a subspecialty PTSD clinical team visit in fiscal year 2010. Logistic and negative binomial regression analyses examined the relationship between modality of the first psychotherapy encounter and subsequent number of psychotherapy encounters within 14 weeks. Among 35,144 VA patients who initiated treatment for PTSD, 38% initiated group therapy and 62% initiated individual therapy. Patients who initiated with group therapy received a greater mean number of psychotherapy visits than those who initiated with individual therapy (4.7 vs. 2.8), and were about twice as likely (29.5% vs. 14.2%) to receive a minimally effective dose of 8 or more psychotherapy encounters. Group therapy predicted a greater number of psychotherapy visits (β = 0.46, SE = .01, p < .001) and greater likelihood of 8 or more sessions of psychotherapy (OR = 2.31, 95% CI [2.19, 2.45], p < .001), after adjusting for differences in demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, and other service use. Greater treatment adequacy among group therapy participants suggests that these patients have greater access to frequent psychotherapy sessions or are more likely to persist with psychotherapy for PTSD than those treated individually. (PsycINFO Database Record
The co-editors of the journal’s two special issues on “Violence in America” from group psychotherapy and mental health standpoints review the articles in Part I and introduce the articles in Part II. The latter includes articles on anger management in groups, group psychotherapy for domestic violence, domestic “homegrown” terrorism, and two general commentaries. The co-editors provide broad reference points for the focus on clinical concerns, levels of treatment, variations in types of perpetrators, screening for groups, and the group-as-a-whole, relational, and social contexts of violence. Whether in small therapy groups, social interventions, or society’s management of violence, empathy, boundaries, holding, and containment must be provided in such a way that they prevent violent acts while healing the hurts and shame that underlie violence in all its forms. Therapists' familiarity with these issues in their work can contribute fruitfully to treatment efforts and addressing a pressing social problem.