Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Division


Despite their recognized limitations, bibliometric assessments of scientific productivity have been widely adopted. We describe here an improved method to quantify the influence of a research article by making novel use of its co-citation network to field-normalize the number of citations it has received. Article citation rates are divided by an expected citation rate that is derived from performance of articles in the same field and benchmarked to a peer comparison group. The resulting Relative Citation Ratio is article level and field independent and provides an alternative to the invalid practice of using journal impact factors to identify influential papers. To illustrate one application of our method, we analyzed 88,835 articles published between 2003 and 2010 and found that the National Institutes of Health awardees who authored those papers occupy relatively stable positions of influence across all disciplines. We demonstrate that the values generated by this method strongly correlate with the opinions of subject matter experts in biomedical research and suggest that the same approach should be generally applicable to articles published in all areas of science. A beta version of iCite, our web tool for calculating Relative Citation Ratios of articles listed in PubMed, is available at

Concepts: Mathematics, Academic publishing, Research, Impact factor, National Institutes of Health, Division, Citation, Quotient


This study explores how contact angle hysteresis and titling angle relate with stickiness on superhydrophobic surfaces. The result indicates that contact angle hysteresis could not be mentioned as a proper factor to evaluate the surface stickiness. By analyzing the system pinning force of droplet placed on a titled surface, we concluded that both solid fraction and surface geometric factor are the critical factors determining the surface stickiness.

Concepts: Surface, Angle, Hysteresis, Differential geometry, Contact angle, Analytic geometry, Division, Fraction


This study explores the applicability of a cognitive stimulation method based on abacus arithmetic in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment.

Concepts: Sociology, Division, Algorism


Background In patients with severe hemophilia A, standard treatment is regular prophylactic and episodic intravenous infusions of factor VIII. However, these treatments are burdensome, especially for children, and may lead to the formation of anti-factor VIII alloantibodies (factor VIII inhibitors). Emicizumab (ACE910), a humanized bispecific antibody mimicking the cofactor function of factor VIII, was developed to abate these problems. Methods We enrolled 18 Japanese patients with severe hemophilia A (with or without factor VIII inhibitors) in an open-label, nonrandomized, interindividual dose-escalation study of emicizumab. The patients received subcutaneous emicizumab weekly for 12 weeks at a dose of 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg per kilogram of body weight (cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The end points were safety and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. An additional, exploratory end point was the annualized bleeding rate, calculated as 365.25 times the number of bleeding episodes, divided by the number of days in the treatment period as compared with the 6 months before enrollment. Results Emicizumab was associated with neither serious adverse events nor clinically relevant coagulation abnormalities. Plasma concentrations of emicizumab increased in a dose-dependent manner. Activated partial-thromboplastin times remained short throughout the study. The median annualized bleeding rates in cohorts 1, 2, and 3 decreased from 32.5 to 4.4, 18.3 to 0.0, and 15.2 to 0.0, respectively. There was no bleeding in 8 of 11 patients with factor VIII inhibitors (73%) and in 5 of 7 patients without factor VIII inhibitors (71%). Episodic use of clotting factors to control bleeding was reduced. Antibodies to emicizumab did not develop. Conclusions Once-weekly subcutaneous administration of emicizumab markedly decreased the bleeding rate in patients who had hemophilia A with or without factor VIII inhibitors. (Funded by Chugai Pharmaceutical; JapicCTI number, 121934.).

Concepts: Blood, Coagulation, Hemostasis, Haemophilia A, Haemophilia B, Protein C, Division, Factor X


Achieving a body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of less than 30 is an important goal of bariatric surgery, given the increased risk for weight-related morbidity and mortality with a BMI above this threshold.

Concepts: Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, International System of Units, Kilogram, Division, Weight, Elementary arithmetic


Machines that simultaneously process and store multistate data at one and the same location can provide a new class of fast, powerful and efficient general-purpose computers. We demonstrate the central element of an all-optical calculator, a photonic abacus, which provides multistate compute-and-store operation by integrating functional phase-change materials with nanophotonic chips. With picosecond optical pulses we perform the fundamental arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, including a carryover into multiple cells. This basic processing unit is embedded into a scalable phase-change photonic network and addressed optically through a two-pulse random access scheme. Our framework provides first steps towards light-based non-von Neumann arithmetic.

Concepts: Mathematics, Optics, Addition, Computer, Arithmetic, Division, Multiplication, Elementary arithmetic


Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric.

Concepts: Academic publishing, Number, Change, Nature, Impact factor, Division, Fraction


The abilities of intracavernous injection of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to facilitate recovery of erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve (CN) injury were compared. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham and control groups (intracavernous injection of phosphate-buffered saline), SVF group (intracavernous injection of SVF), and ADSC group (intracavernous injection of ADSCs). Rats in the latter three groups underwent bilateral CN injury prior to injection. The evaluation of erectile function and histomorphometric studies were performed 4 weeks after injection. The ratio of maximal intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in the control group than in the sham group (0.18 vs. 0.56, p < .001). Intracavernous injection of SVF (0.36, p = .035) significantly improved erectile function compared with that in the control group, whereas the ADSC group (0.35, p = .052) showed marginally significant improvement. The smooth muscle/collagen ratio, smooth muscle content, number of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-positive nerve fibers, and expression of von Willebrand factor were significantly higher in the SVF and ADSC groups than in the control group. Expression of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase was significantly increased in the SVF group. The increases in the smooth muscle/collagen ratio and von Willebrand factor expression were larger in the SVF group than in the ADSC group. Intracavernous injection of SVF or ADSCs was equally effective in recovering penile erection in a rat model of CN injury.

Concepts: Scientific control, Function, Atherosclerosis, Von Willebrand factor, Erectile dysfunction, Division


The unique Landau level spectrum of bilayer graphene (BLG) is predicted to support a non-Abelian even-denominator fractional quantum Hall state (FQHE) similar to the [Formula: see text] state first identified in GaAs. However, the nature of this state has remained difficult to characterize. Here we report transport measurements of a robust sequence of even denominator FQHE in dual gated BLG devices. Parallel field measurement confirms the spin-polarized nature of the ground state, consistent with the Pfaffian/anti-Pfaffian description. The sensitivity of the even denominator states to both filling fraction and transverse displacement field, provides new opportunities for tunability. Our results suggest that BLG is a platform where topological ground states with possible non-Abelian excitations can be manipulated and controlled.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Condensed matter physics, Quantum field theory, Vector space, Division, Hall effect, Quantum Hall effect, Rational function


To correct the incongruence of document types between the numerator and denominator in the traditional impact factor (IF), we make a corresponding adjustment to its formula and present five corrective IFs: IFTotal/Total, IFTotal/AREL, IFAR/AR, IFAREL/AR, and IFAREL/AREL. Based on a survey of researchers in the fields of ophthalmology and mathematics, we obtained the real impact ranking of sample journals in the minds of peer experts. The correlations between various IFs and questionnaire score were analyzed to verify their journal evaluation effects. The results show that it is scientific and reasonable to use five corrective IFs for journal evaluation for both ophthalmology and mathematics. For ophthalmology, the journal evaluation effects of the five corrective IFs are superior than those of traditional IF: the corrective effect of IFAR/AR is the best, IFAREL/AR is better than IFTotal/Total, followed by IFTotal/AREL, and IFAREL/AREL. For mathematics, the journal evaluation effect of traditional IF is superior than those of the five corrective IFs: the corrective effect of IFTotal/Total is best, IFAREL/AR is better than IFTotal/AREL and IFAREL/AREL, and the corrective effect of IFAR/AR is the worst. In conclusion, not all disciplinary journal IF need correction. The results in the current paper show that to correct the IF of ophthalmologic journals may be valuable, but it seems to be meaningless for mathematic journals.

Concepts: Academic publishing, Science, Number, Nature, Impact factor, Division, Fraction, Elementary arithmetic