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Concept: Diverticulum


Although duodenal diverticula are common, periampullary duodenal diverticula are rare. Periampullary duodenal diverticula are usually asymptomatic and may be difficult to diagnose and treat. However, they may present with massive bleeding, requiring prompt diagnosis.

Concepts: Medical terms, Diagnosis, Greek loanwords, Hemostasis, Bleeding, Diverticulum, Meckel's diverticulum


Colonic diverticula are common in developed countries and complications of colonic diverticulosis are responsible for a significant burden of disease. Several recent publications have called into question long held beliefs about diverticular disease. Contrary to conventional wisdom, studies have not shown that a high fiber diet protects against asymptomatic diverticulosis. The risk of developing diverticulitis among individuals with diverticulosis is lower than the 10-25% commonly quoted, and may be as low as 1% over 11 years. Nuts and seeds do not increase the risk of diverticulitis or diverticular bleeding. It is unclear whether diverticulosis, absent diverticulitis or overt colitis, is responsible for chronic gastrointestinal symptoms or worse quality of life. The role of antibiotics in acute diverticulitis has been challenged by a large randomized trial that showed no benefit in selected patients. The decision to perform elective surgery should be made on a case-by-case basis and not routinely after a second episode of diverticulitis, when there has been a complication, or in young people. A colonoscopy should be performed to exclude colon cancer after an attack of acute diverticulitis but may not alter outcomes among individuals who have had a colonoscopy prior to the attack. Given these surprising findings, it is time to reconsider conventional wisdom about diverticular disease.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Surgery, Ulcerative colitis, Colon, Diverticulum, Diverticulitis, Diverticulosis


Quality control and technical issues are essential for high-quality imaging. An important technical parameter of image acquisition is selecting zoom factor according to camera field-of-view dimensions and patient’s body size. Here, we present a case of atypically located Meckel’s diverticulum mimicking bladder on Meckel scan.

Concepts: Quality control, Management, According to Jim, Diverticulum, IMAGE, Photography, Meckel's diverticulum, DC Comics


The frequent complications of Meckel’s diverticulum are hemorrhage, intestinal obstruction, and inflammation, and perforation. The presentation as a retroperitoneal abscess as complications of Meckel’s diverticulum is a very rare clinical entity.

Concepts: Diverticulum, Meckel's diverticulum


Meckel scintigraphy with Tc-pertechnetate was performed in a 5-year-old boy to determine whether a Meckel diverticulum containing ectopic gastric mucosa caused bleeding. The images did not reveal focal activity characteristic of a Meckel diverticulum. Unexpectedly, activity in the tracheobronchial tree was visualized, consistent with aspiration of the radioactive saliva.

Concepts: Mucous membrane, Nuclear medicine, Diverticulum, Gamma ray, Gastric mucosa, Radionuclide, Meckel's diverticulum


Calyceal diverticula in children are rare and 20% eventually become symptomatic. Following the use of laparoscopic or endoscopic treatments, 85% of children report symptomatic relief. However, complete radiological resolution is seen only in three-fourths of the laparoscopic group and a quarter of those treated via endoscopy. Diathermy ablation of the lining and/or prolonged double J stenting has not altered this outcome. The robotic approach is superior to the other two techniques as the leak can be clearly identified and securely suture ligated. We believe that this is the third published report of the successful closure of a calyceal diverticulum in a child using robotic assistance. A ten-year-old boy presented with severe pain in the right flank and a palpable renal swelling. Retrograde injection of contrast outlined a large exophytic calyceal diverticulum (type 2) in the lower pole. Robotic assistance allowed precise suture closure of the neck as well as partial marsupialisation of the diverticulum. The child was discharged within 48 h and remains symptom free 18 months later. Calyceal diverticula are rare but technically challenging entities. We have shown a good outcome with only suture closure of the leak. Diathermy ablation of the lining and prolonged internal stenting were avoided.

Concepts: Medical terms, Pain, Child, Diverticulum, Endoscopy, The Child


The Zenker diverticulum (ZD) is the most common type of esophageal diverticula. Management of ZD has different options; however, there is a recent increase in treatment with flexible endoscopic myotomy (FEM). In our study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of FEM among patients with ZD.

Concepts: Medical terms, Diverticulum, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Meckel's diverticulum, Barium swallow, Zenker's diverticulum, Friedrich Albert von Zenker


Background and study aim Relief from dysphagia and regurgitation are the main goals of therapy in symptomatic Zenker’s diverticulum. Flexible endoscopic treatment has proved to be an effective and safe method in control of these symptoms. The aim of our study was to further improve the resection of the cricopharyngeal muscle using a new technique, the double incision and snare resection (DISR) procedure, to reduce the recurrence rate. Patients and methods From February 2016 to April 2017, 16 patients were treated with 18 DISR procedures at our institution. The symptoms of the patients were recorded by a seven-item questionnaire prior to treatment, and re-evaluation was scheduled at 1 and 6 months after treatment. Results The median age was 70 years (range 55 - 85), and 10 patients were men (62 %). The median size of the diverticulum was 20 mm (range 5 - 40 mm), and the DISR procedure was performed in 28 minutes (range 20 - 47 minutes), with no major postinterventional complications. All patients re-started oral nutrition on the day after the intervention; a gastric tube was not required. The median follow-up was 3 months (range 1 - 15 months). Two patients received a planned second-step procedure, one because of a very large cricopharyngeal muscle and one because of a cyst inside the Zenker’s bridge. Although one patient suffered from mild recurrence of symptoms, she refused a second treatment. All other patients were free of symptoms after treatment. Conclusions The DISR procedure is a new endoscopic treatment technique that safely and reproducibly offers relief from symptomatic Zenker’s diverticulum.

Concepts: Medical terms, Diverticulum, Endoscopy, The Double, Zenker's diverticulum, Friedrich Albert von Zenker, 2016, 2017


Pharyngoesophageal diverticula (PED) of the Zenker’s and Killian-Jamieson types arise in close proximity to the thyroid gland, and may rarely be confused with a thyroid nodule on ultrasonography. In this brief report, we detail the cytologic, clinical, and radiologic findings of three PED that were thought to be thyroid nodules, and were subjected to fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The patients were females with an age range of 51-64 years. All three patients had multiple thyroid nodules, and two patients reported symptoms attributable to the diverticulum. Nodule sizes ranged from 1.0 to 2.7 cm, and either the right or left thyroid lobe could be involved. Microcalcifications were present by ultrasonography in all three cases. FNA of these thyroid nodule mimics showed squamous cells with granular or amorphous debris, bacterial and/or fungal colonies, inflammation, and food particles. These cytologic features, particularly the presence of vegetable or meat fragments, are characteristic, and have also been reported in the few previous reports of PED. The presence of a diverticulum was confirmed with imaging studies in all our patients. Although a rare occurrence, the inadvertent FNA of a PED masquerading as a thyroid nodule is important to recognize, as a recommendation for appropriate radiologic studies could potentially avoid inappropriate therapy for thyroid disease.

Concepts: Thyroid disease, Radiology, Thyroid, Thyroid hormone, Diverticulum, Endocrine system, Zenker's diverticulum, Thyroid nodule


The key step in Meckel’s diverticulectomy (MD) is to achieve complete resection of MD along with the ectopic epithelium. Currently main treatment methods for Meckel’s diverticulum are either intestinal resection and anastomosis or wedge resection. Here we introduced a new method to treat MD. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical effects and advantages of a new operation method for Meckel’s diverticulum: basal ligation combined with intraoperative frozen section.

Concepts: Digestive system, The Key, Diverticulum, Meckel's diverticulum