SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Diverticulum

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Although duodenal diverticula are common, periampullary duodenal diverticula are rare. Periampullary duodenal diverticula are usually asymptomatic and may be difficult to diagnose and treat. However, they may present with massive bleeding, requiring prompt diagnosis.

Concepts: Medical terms, Diagnosis, Greek loanwords, Hemostasis, Bleeding, Diverticulum, Meckel's diverticulum

3

Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent abdominal symptoms in patients with colonic diverticula. There is some evidence that a high-fiber diet or supplemental fibers may reduce symptoms in SUDD patients and a high-fiber diet is commonly suggested for these patients. This systematic review aims to update the evidence on the efficacy of fiber treatment in SUDD, in terms of a reduction in symptoms and the prevention of acute diverticulitis. According to PRISMA, we identified studies on SUDD patients treated with fibers (PubMed and Scopus). The quality of these studies was evaluated by the Jadad scale. The main outcome measures were a reduction of abdominal symptoms and the prevention of acute diverticulitis. Nineteen studies were included, nine with dietary fiber and 10 with supplemental fiber, with a high heterogeneity concerning the quantity and quality of fibers employed. Single studies suggest that fibers, both dietary and supplemental, could be beneficial in SUDD, even if the quality is very low, with just one study yielding an optimal score. The presence of substantial methodological limitations, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic regimens employed, and the lack of ad hoc designed studies, did not permit a summary of the outcome measure. Thus, the benefit of dietary or supplemental fiber in SUDD patients still needs to be established.

Concepts: Medical terms, Randomized controlled trial, Colon, Fiber, Diverticulum, Dietary fiber, Diverticulitis, Diverticulosis

2

Colonic diverticula are common in developed countries and complications of colonic diverticulosis are responsible for a significant burden of disease. Several recent publications have called into question long held beliefs about diverticular disease. Contrary to conventional wisdom, studies have not shown that a high fiber diet protects against asymptomatic diverticulosis. The risk of developing diverticulitis among individuals with diverticulosis is lower than the 10-25% commonly quoted, and may be as low as 1% over 11 years. Nuts and seeds do not increase the risk of diverticulitis or diverticular bleeding. It is unclear whether diverticulosis, absent diverticulitis or overt colitis, is responsible for chronic gastrointestinal symptoms or worse quality of life. The role of antibiotics in acute diverticulitis has been challenged by a large randomized trial that showed no benefit in selected patients. The decision to perform elective surgery should be made on a case-by-case basis and not routinely after a second episode of diverticulitis, when there has been a complication, or in young people. A colonoscopy should be performed to exclude colon cancer after an attack of acute diverticulitis but may not alter outcomes among individuals who have had a colonoscopy prior to the attack. Given these surprising findings, it is time to reconsider conventional wisdom about diverticular disease.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Surgery, Ulcerative colitis, Colon, Diverticulum, Diverticulitis, Diverticulosis

1

Non-malignant oesophageal diseases are critical to recognize, but can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed radiologically. In this paper, we cover the salient clinical features and imaging findings of non-malignant pathology of the oesophagus. We organize the many non-malignant diseases of the oesophagus into two major categories: luminal disorders and wall disorders. Luminal disorders include dilatation/narrowing (e.g. achalasia, scleroderma, and stricture) and foreign body impaction. Wall disorders include wall thickening (e.g. oesophagitis, benign neoplasms, oesophageal varices, and intramural hematoma), wall thinning/outpouching (e.g. epiphrenic diverticulum, Zenker diverticulum, and Killian-Jamieson diverticulum), wall rupture (e.g. iatrogenic perforation, Boerhaave Syndrome, and Mallory-Weiss Syndrome), and fistula formation (e.g. pericardioesophageal fistula, tracheoesophageal fistula, and aortoesophageal fistula). It is the role of the radiologist to recognize the classic imaging patterns of these non-malignant oesophageal diseases to facilitate the delivery of appropriate and prompt medical treatment.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Benign tumor, Gastroenterology, Esophageal varices, Diverticulum, Zenker's diverticulum, Boerhaave syndrome

0

Intussusception is an unusual disorder among the complications of diverticula in adults. This study aimed to report intussusception due to an inverted colonic diverticulum. Such a large inverted colonic diverticulum has rarely been reported.

Concepts: Medical terms, Report, Diverticulum, Meckel's diverticulum

0

To explore the value of transurethral contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnosis and evaluation of female urethral diverticula.

Concepts: Diverticulum, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound

0

The incidence of Meckel’s diverticulum is 2% in the general population. Although most commonly found in children as painless rectal bleeding, in adults, obstruction, inflammation, and perforation are the usual manifestations. We present the case of a 32 year old man who arrived at our institution with hematochezia and symptomatic anemia. A large Meckel’s diverticulum was encountered during work-up and treated by segmental small bowel resection. A literature review, including disease presentation, pathology findings, and treatment options is discussed.

Concepts: Biology, Medical terms, Digestive system, Intestine, Gastroenterology, Small intestine, Diverticulum, Meckel's diverticulum

0

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety following endoscopic management of Zenker’s diverticulum (ZD) using a needle-knife technique.

Concepts: Diverticulum, Barium swallow, Zenker's diverticulum

0

Although colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB) often ceases spontaneously, re-bleeding occurs in about 30%. Bleeding diverticulum can be treated directly by endoscopic hemostasis; however, it is difficult to perform colonoscopy in all cases with limited medical resource and certain risks. The aim of this study was to clarify who should undergo colonoscopy as well as appropriate methods of initial management in CDB patients.

Concepts: Medical terms, Observational study, Diverticulum

0

Endoscopic treatment of Zenker’s diverticulum has proven feasible, but electrocautery and CO2laser technology carry the risk of collateral thermal injury. Thulium laser septum incision may overcome this limitation. We describe for the first time the use of thulium laser through flexible endoscopy in a small cohort of patients with Zenker diverticulum.

Concepts: Optical fiber, Diverticulum, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Zenker's diverticulum, Friedrich Albert von Zenker