SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Diverticulitis

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Defecatory disorders are very common complications after left hemicolectomy and anterior rectal resection. These disorders seem related primarily to colonic denervation after the resection. To evaluate the real benefits of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) preservation via laparoscopic left hemicolectomy performed for diverticular disease in terms of reduced colonic denervation and improved postoperative intestinal functions, a randomized, single-blinded (patients) controlled clinical trial was conducted.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Colon, Diverticulitis, Colectomy, Sigmoid colon, Inferior mesenteric artery, Superior rectal artery

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: A laparoscopic approach has been proposed to reduce the high morbidity and mortality associated with the Hartmann procedure for the emergency treatment of diverticulitis.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Diverticulitis, Hartmann's operation, Henri Albert Hartmann

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The realm of minimally invasive surgery now encompasses the majority of abdominal operations in the field of colorectal surgery. Diverticulitis, a common pathology seen in most colorectal practices, poses unique challenges to surgeons implementing laparoscopic surgery in their practices due to the presence of an inflammatory phlegmon and distorted anatomical planes, which increase the difficulty of the operation. Although the majority of colon resections for diverticulitis are still performed through a standard laparotomy incision, laparoscopic techniques are becoming increasingly common. A large body of literature now supports laparoscopic surgery to be safe and effective as well as to provide significant advantages over open surgery for diverticular disease. Here, we review the most current literature supporting laparoscopic surgery for elective and emergent treatment of diverticulitis.

Concepts: Surgery, Colon, Minimally invasive, Laparoscopic surgery, Invasive, Invasiveness of surgical procedures, Open surgery, Diverticulitis

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Colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis is a life-threatening clinical condition. For these patients, a two-stage operation of fecal diversion and a postponed colostomy closure is generally recommended. Accordingly, a simple and feasible primary repair technique was explored.

Concepts: Escherichia coli, Peritonitis, Diverticulitis, Gastrointestinal perforation, Colostomy

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BACKGROUND & AIMS: Faecal calprotectin and lactoferrin are sensitive markers of mucosal inflammation. We compared three different assays in their ability to identify patients with organic intestinal disease. METHODS: In a post-hoc analysis of a prospective study, we examined 405 unselected patients with abdominal complaints referred for endoscopy to the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Calprotectin (EK-CAL, Bühlmann Laboratories, Switzerland; PhiCal, Calpro AS, Norway) and lactoferrin (IBD-Scan, Techlab, USA) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The presence of a clinically significant endoscopic finding was the primary endpoint of the study. Final diagnoses were adjudicated blinded to calprotectin values. RESULTS: The prevalence of organic intestinal disease was 35.3%. Receiver operating characteristics analysis calculated an area under the curve (AUC) for EK-CAL of 0.918, which was significantly better than for PhiCal (AUC 0.842, P <0.001) and faecal lactoferrin (IBD-Scan, AUC 0.830, P =0.003) to identify patients with organic intestinal disease. Overall test accuracy was 88.1% for EK-CAL, 83.7% for PhiCal, and 81.3% for IBD-Scan. Optimal cut-off value calculated for PhiCal and IBD-Scan were lower than recommended by the manufacturer. CONCLUSIONS: Monoclonal testing of calprotectin is superior to both polyclonal calprotectin testing and faecal lactoferrin in identifying symptomatic patients with organic intestinal disease.

Concepts: Medical statistics, Ulcerative colitis, Large intestine, Gastroenterology, ELISA, ELISPOT, Receiver operating characteristic, Diverticulitis

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To estimate the prevalence of underlying adenocarcinoma of the colon in patients in whom acute diverticulitis was diagnosed at computed tomography (CT) and to compare that to the prevalence of colon cancer in the general population.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Colorectal cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Colon, Sigmoidoscopy, Diverticulitis, Diverticulosis

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To determine pre-/intraoperative risk factors for anastomotic leak after colon resection for cancer and to create a practical instrument for predicting anastomotic leak risk.

Concepts: Multivariate statistics, Diverticulitis, Pseudomembranous colitis, Multivariate analysis

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OBJECTIVE: We propose a diverticular disease severity score (DDSS) based on CT colonography (CTC) findings. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients (62 ± 14.5 years) underwent CTC after recovering from an episode of acute diverticulitis. Two independent readers classified each case using a four-point scale (DDSS), based on maximum sigmoid colon wall thickness (MSCWT) and minimum lumen diameter at CTC: 1 = MSCWT <3 mm, lumen diameter ≥15 mm; 2 = MSCWT 3-8 mm, lumen diameter ≥5 mm; 3 = MSCWT ≥8 mm, lumen diameter ≥5 mm; 4 = MSCWT ≥8 mm, lumen diameter <5 mm. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was evaluated. Of 79 patients, 32 (40 %) underwent surgery after CTC; MSCWT was directly measured on the pathological specimen. RESULTS: Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of DDSS were almost perfect (k = 0.90-0.84). DDSS significantly correlated with the probability of surgery (P = 0.001). After surgery, histopathology revealed acute/chronic diverticular inflammation only in 29 cases, and superimposed sigmoid cancer (n = 2) or Crohn's disease (n = 1) in 3 patients with a DDSS of 4. MSCWT at histopathology correlated with DDSS (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: DDSS is highly reproducible and correlates with pathological MSCWT. Nearly 1 in 3 patients with a DDSS of 4 had significant superimposed histopathology. CTC with DDSS can provide colorectal surgeons with valuable information. KEY POINTS: • A diverticular disease severity score (DDSS) based on CT colonography is proposed. • This DDSS is based on sigmoid colon wall thickness and lumen diameter. • High scores may be associated with relevant coexisting lesions. • A CTC-based DDSS may influence therapeutic decision-making.

Concepts: Surgery, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Abdominal pain, Colonoscopy, Diverticulitis, Diverticulosis

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BACKGROUND: Although enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) may permit early recovery and discharge after laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LC), most publications report that the mean hospital stay is 4 and 6 days. This study evaluates the addition of a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block to the standard ERP. METHODS: In this study, 35 consecutive elective patients received a TAP block at the end of LC. The patients were matched by operation, diagnosis, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) with 35 recent cases and followed in a prospective institutional review board (IRB)-approved database. All the patients were managed with a standardized ERP. The surgeon placed TAP blocks under laparoscopic guidance that infiltrated 15 ml of 0.5 % Marcaine on both sides of the abdomen. RESULTS: The cases included 8 low pelvic anastomoses, 4 proctectomies with or without an ileal pouch anal anastomosis, 5 sigmoid/left colectomies, 13 ileocolic/right colectomies, 1 total colectomy, and 5 others. The mean age was 59 years for the TAP group and 64.1 years for the control group (p = 0.21). The mean hospital stay was 2 days for the TAP patients and 3 days for the control patients (p = 0.000013). Of the 35 TAP patients, 13 went home on postoperative day (POD) 1 (37 %), 12 on POD 2 (34 %), 8 on POD 3 (23 %), and the remainder on POD 4. Of the 35 control patients, 1 went home on POD 1 (3 %), 10 on POD 2 (29 %), 10 on POD 3 (29 %), 11 on POD 4 (31 %), and the remainder on POD 5 to 8. The TAP patients required fewer narcotics postoperatively than the control patients (respective mean morphine equivalents, 31.08 vs. 85.41; p = 0.01). DISCUSSION: A bilateral TAP block significantly improved the results of an established ERP for patients undergoing LC. Surgeon-administered TAP blocks may be an economical and efficient method for improving the results of LC.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Body mass index, Transversus abdominis muscle, Diverticulitis, Pseudomembranous colitis, Ileo-anal pouch

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term results in patients treated for diverticular disease (DD), mainly considering indication for surgery, outcome of the treatment modalities and quality of life. All consecutive patients who underwent treatment for diverticular disease since January 2003 to June 2007 were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: medical treatment, elective surgery and emergency surgery. The patients responded to the questions of the Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) questionnaire and to a symptoms questionnaire during a telephone interview. The long-term outcome parameters such as readmission to the hospital, further surgery for DD, current health status, and quality of life were analyzed according to possible predictors. 146 patients (72.2 %) agreed to submit to the telephone interview and were enrolled in the study. The median follow-up was 99 months. Fifty-two patients were managed with medical therapy, 36 patients received elective operations, and 58 patients underwent acute surgery. Twelve patients (12.7 %) complained episodes of persistent abdominal pain after surgical resection, compared with 6 non-surgical patients (11.5 %). No possible predictors of recurrence, reoperation or readmission were found. The CGQL total scores were found to be similar in the three groups. DD affected bowel function and quality of life of patients in the long-term follow-up regardless of the type of therapy adopted. No long-term advantages of colonic resection were found which should be considered only in patients presenting complicated DD.

Concepts: Medicine, Medical terms, Hospital, Surgery, Therapy, Physician, Abdominal pain, Diverticulitis