Concept: Distribution of wealth
Social science research finds that the only group to have experienced real economic gains over the past four decades is the top 20 percent of the income distribution. This finding, along with greater awareness of growing inequality, has renewed interest in mobility research that identifies how individuals and their progeny move into and out of upper versus lower income categories. In this study a new mobility methodology is proposed using life course concepts and life table statistical techniques. Panel data from a prospective national sample of the U.S. population age 25 to 60 are analyzed to estimate the extent of mobility associated with top percentiles in the income distribution. Empirical results suggest high mobility associated with top-level income. For example, 11 percent of the population is found to occupy the top one percentile for one or more years between the ages of 25 and 60. The study findings suggest that many experience short-term and/or intermittent mobility into top-level income, versus a smaller set that persist within top-level income over many consecutive years. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of inequality buffering, opportunity versus insecurity, and the demographics of income inequality.
Population-based studies on violent crime and background factors may provide an understanding of the relationships between susceptibility factors and crime. We aimed to determine the distribution of violent crime convictions in the Swedish population 1973-2004 and to identify criminal, academic, parental, and psychiatric risk factors for persistence in violent crime.
: Until population-based data become available in Ethiopia, hospital-based studies may reflect the distribution of the subtypes of glaucoma in certain parts of the country.
The recent development of very high resistance to phosphine in rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), seriously threatens stored-grain biosecurity. The aim was to characterise this resistance, to develop a rapid bioassay for its diagnosis to support pest management and to document the distribution of resistance in Australia in 2007-2011.
A method based on a double emulsion system (solid-in-water-in-oil-in-water) has been developed for the production of nanoparticles-in-microparticles (NIMs). The distribution of nanoparticles within the NIMs was explored using light and electron microscopy and through assessment of drug loading and release profiles. The extent of nanoparticle entrapment within the NIMs was found to be dependent on the state (wet vs. dry) in which the nanoparticles were introduced to the formulation. The technique was readily adaptable to produce NIMs of different morphologies. It is proposed that NIMs and this method to produce them have broad application in drug delivery research.
We used an environmental justice screening tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1) to compare the distribution of environmental hazards and vulnerable populations across California communities.
High tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an emerging biomarker of sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitors and has been shown to be more significantly associated with response to PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy than PD-1 or PD-L1 expression, as measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The distribution of TMB and the subset of patients with high TMB has not been well characterized in the majority of cancer types.
The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of the vehicles involved in crashes in Miami-Dade County. In addition, we also analyzed the role of time of the day, day of the week, seasonality, drivers' age have on the distribution of traffic crashes.
Information about trends in adolescent health inequalities is scarce, especially at an international level. We examined secular trends in socioeconomic inequality in five domains of adolescent health and the association of socioeconomic inequality with national wealth and income inequality.
To assess the distribution of injury mechanisms and activities among children with concussions in a large pediatric healthcare system.