Concept: Distribution of wealth
Social science research finds that the only group to have experienced real economic gains over the past four decades is the top 20 percent of the income distribution. This finding, along with greater awareness of growing inequality, has renewed interest in mobility research that identifies how individuals and their progeny move into and out of upper versus lower income categories. In this study a new mobility methodology is proposed using life course concepts and life table statistical techniques. Panel data from a prospective national sample of the U.S. population age 25 to 60 are analyzed to estimate the extent of mobility associated with top percentiles in the income distribution. Empirical results suggest high mobility associated with top-level income. For example, 11 percent of the population is found to occupy the top one percentile for one or more years between the ages of 25 and 60. The study findings suggest that many experience short-term and/or intermittent mobility into top-level income, versus a smaller set that persist within top-level income over many consecutive years. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of inequality buffering, opportunity versus insecurity, and the demographics of income inequality.
Population-based studies on violent crime and background factors may provide an understanding of the relationships between susceptibility factors and crime. We aimed to determine the distribution of violent crime convictions in the Swedish population 1973-2004 and to identify criminal, academic, parental, and psychiatric risk factors for persistence in violent crime.
: Until population-based data become available in Ethiopia, hospital-based studies may reflect the distribution of the subtypes of glaucoma in certain parts of the country.
The recent development of very high resistance to phosphine in rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), seriously threatens stored-grain biosecurity. The aim was to characterise this resistance, to develop a rapid bioassay for its diagnosis to support pest management and to document the distribution of resistance in Australia in 2007-2011.
A method based on a double emulsion system (solid-in-water-in-oil-in-water) has been developed for the production of nanoparticles-in-microparticles (NIMs). The distribution of nanoparticles within the NIMs was explored using light and electron microscopy and through assessment of drug loading and release profiles. The extent of nanoparticle entrapment within the NIMs was found to be dependent on the state (wet vs. dry) in which the nanoparticles were introduced to the formulation. The technique was readily adaptable to produce NIMs of different morphologies. It is proposed that NIMs and this method to produce them have broad application in drug delivery research.
High tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an emerging biomarker of sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitors and has been shown to be more significantly associated with response to PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy than PD-1 or PD-L1 expression, as measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The distribution of TMB and the subset of patients with high TMB has not been well characterized in the majority of cancer types.
We used an environmental justice screening tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1) to compare the distribution of environmental hazards and vulnerable populations across California communities.
Self-rated health (SRH) and burnout are commonly used health indicators. This study was designed to examine the age-specific patterns of SRH and burnout and their correlations with self-reported disease symptoms, and to investigate the moderating effects of age on the associations of psychosocial work conditions with these two health measures.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of bubbles, degree of mixing, flowability and mechanical strength of powder-liquid reline material by manually and with a rotation-revolution (planetary) mixer, and to determine the usefulness of a rotation-revolution mixer for this application.
The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined ‘most important’ autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61-70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump is largely driven by constructive, schematic factors at retrieval, thereby challenging most existing theoretical accounts.