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Concept: Distilled beverage


Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake.

Concepts: Alcohol, Ethanol, Alcoholism, Mental disorder, Schizophrenia, Wine, Alcoholic beverage, Distilled beverage


In consumer food-sensory studies, sorting and closely related methods (for example, projective mapping) have often been applied to large product sets which are complex and fatiguing for panelists. Analysis of sorting by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is common, but this method discards relevant individual decisions; analysis by DISTATIS, which accounts for individual differences, is gaining acceptance. This research posits that replication can improve DISTATIS analysis by stabilizing consumer sensory maps, which are often extremely unstable. As a case study a fatiguing product set was sorted: 10 American whiskeys-5 bourbons and 5 ryes-were sorted into groups by 21 consumers over 2 replications. These products were chosen because American whiskeys are some of the most important distilled beverages in today’s market; in particular, “bourbon” (mashbill more than 50% corn) and “rye” (more than 50% rye) whiskeys are important and assumed to be products with distinct sensory attributes. However, there is almost no scientific information about their sensory properties. Data were analyzed using standard and aggregated DISTATIS and MDS. No significant relationship between mashbill and consumer categorization in whiskeys was found; instead, there was evidence of producer and aging effects. aggregated DISTATIS was found to provide more stable results than without replication, and DISTATIS results provided a number of benefits over MDS, including bootstrapped confidence intervals for product separation. In addition, this is the first published evidence that mashbill does not determine sensory properties of American whiskey: bourbons and ryes, while legally distinct, were not separated by consumers.

Concepts: Scientific method, Vodka, Consumer protection, Distilled beverage, Brandy, Whisky, Bourbon whiskey, American whiskey


Epidemiological data suggest that moderate red wine consumption reduces cardiovascular mortality and the incidence of diabetes. However, whether these effects are due to ethanol or to non-alcoholic components of red wine still remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of red wine, dealcoholized red wine, and gin on glucose metabolism and the lipid profile.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Medical statistics, The Canon of Medicine, Ethanol, Yeast, Wine, Distilled beverage


The objective of this study was to investigate residential exposure to alcohol outlets in relation to alcohol consumption and mental health morbidity (anxiety, stress, and depression). This was a cross-sectional study of 6,837 adults obtained from a population representative sample for the period 2006-2009 in Perth, Western Australia. The number of alcohol outlets was ascertained for a 1600 m service area surrounding the residential address. Zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression were used to assess associations with total alcohol consumption, harmful alcohol consumption (7-10 drinks containing 10 g of alcohol for men, 5-6 drinks for women) and medically diagnosed and hospital contacts (for anxiety, stress, and depression), respectively. The rate ratio for the number of days of harmful consumption of alcohol per month and the number of standard drinks of alcohol consumed per drinking day was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.11) and 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.03) for each additional liquor store within a 1600 m service area, respectively. The odds ratio of hospital contact for anxiety, stress, or depression was 1.56 (95% CI: 0.98, 2.49) for those with a liquor store within the service area compared to those without. We observed strong evidence for a small association between residential exposure to liquor stores and harmful consumption of alcohol, and some support for a moderate-sized effect on hospital contacts for anxiety, stress, and depression.

Concepts: Logit, Alcohol, Ethanol, Wine, Alcoholic beverage, Vodka, Distilled beverage, Liquor store


There has been increasing interest in how neighborhood context may be associated with alcohol use. This study uses finite mixture modeling to empirically identify distinct neighborhood subtypes according to patterns of clustering of multiple neighborhood characteristics and examine whether these subtypes are associated with alcohol use. Neighborhoods were 303 census block groups in the greater Seattle, WA, area where 531 adults participating in an ongoing longitudinal study were residing in 2008. Neighborhood characteristics used to identify neighborhood subtypes included concentration of poverty, racial composition, neighborhood disorganization, and availability of on-premise alcohol outlets and off-premise hard liquor stores. Finite mixture models were used to identify latent neighborhood subtypes, and regression models with cluster robust standard errors examined associations between neighborhood subtypes and individual-level typical weekly drinking and number of past-year binge drinking episodes. Five neighborhood subtypes were identified. These subtypes could be primarily characterized as (1) high socioeconomic disadvantage, (2) moderate disadvantage, (3) low disadvantage, (4) low poverty and high disorganization, and (5) high alcohol availability. Adjusted for covariates, adults living in neighborhoods characterized by high disadvantage reported the highest levels of typical drinking and binge drinking compared to those from other neighborhood subtypes. Neighborhood subtypes derived from finite mixture models may represent meaningful categories that can help identify residential areas at elevated risk for alcohol misuse.

Concepts: Alcoholism, Alcohol abuse, Census block group, Alcoholic beverage, Drinking culture, Mixture model, Binge drinking, Distilled beverage


White, compared with Black, adolescents have higher rates of alcohol use and show more rapid increases in alcohol use. Racial differences in type of alcohol beverage (i.e., beer, wine, and liquor) consumed by youth have received scant attention, and little is known regarding changes in type of alcohol beverage consumed during adolescence, when experimentation may transition to more regular use.

Concepts: Alcohol, Ethanol, Yeast, Alcoholism, Wine, Alcoholic beverage, Beer, Distilled beverage


Objectives. We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. Results. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Conclusions. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types.

Concepts: Ethanol, Time series, Alcoholic beverage, Beer, Alcoholic beverage control state, Distilled beverage, Alko, Systembolaget


Past studies of relationships between alcohol and hip fracture have generally focused on total alcohol consumed and not type of alcohol. Different types of alcohol consist of varying components which may affect risk of hip fracture differentially. This study seeks to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption, with a focus on type of alcohol consumed (e.g. beer, wine, or hard liquor) and hip fracture risk in post-menopausal women.

Concepts: Ethanol, Yeast, Wine, Alcoholic beverage, Vodka, Distilled beverage, Brandy, Schnapps


Successful discrimination of 14 representative liquors (including scotch, bourbon and rye whiskies, brandy, and vodka) was achieved using a 36-element colorimetric sensor array comprising multiple classes of cross-reactive, chemically responsive inks. In combination with a palm-sized image analyzer, the sensor array permits real-time identification of liquor products based on vapor analysis within 2 min. Changes in sensor spot colors before and after exposure to the vapors of the liquors that are partially oxidized as they are pumped over the sensor array provides a unique color difference pattern for each analyte. Facile identification of each liquor was demonstrated using several different multivariate analyses of the digital data library, including principal component, hierarchical cluster, and support vector machine analysis. The sensor array is also able to detect dilution (i.e., “watering”) of liquors even down to 1% addition of water. This colorimetric sensor array is a promising portable adjunct to other available techniques for quality assurance of liquors and other alcoholic beverages.

Concepts: Alcohol, Ethanol, Alcoholic beverage, Vodka, Vapor, Distilled beverage, Brandy, Whisky


A two-dimensional imaging system (Sniffer-camera) for visualizing the concentration distribution of ethanol vapor emitting from wine in a wine glass has been developed. This system provides image information of ethanol vapor concentration using chemiluminescence (CL) from an enzyme-immobilized mesh. This system measures ethanol vapor concentration as CL intensities from luminol reactions induced by alcohol oxidase and a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. Conversion of ethanol distribution and concentration to two-dimensional CL was conducted using an enzyme-immobilized mesh containing an alcohol oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and luminol solution. The temporal changes in CL were detected using an electron multiplier (EM)-CCD camera and analyzed. We selected three types of glasses-a wine glass, a cocktail glass, and a straight glass-to determine the differences in ethanol emission caused by the shape effects of the glass. The emission measurements of ethanol vapor from wine in each glass were successfully visualized, with pixel intensity reflecting ethanol concentration. Of note, a characteristic ring shape attributed to high alcohol concentration appeared near the rim of the wine glass containing 13 °C wine. Thus, the alcohol concentration in the center of the wine glass was comparatively lower. The Sniffer-camera was demonstrated to be sufficiently useful for non-destructive ethanol measurement for the assessment of food characteristics.

Concepts: Oxygen, Ethanol, Yeast, Wine, Alcoholic beverage, Image processing, Distilled beverage, Luminol