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Concept: Display technology


Approximately 5-40 % of patients treated with clopidogrel do not display an adequate antiplatelet response. Clopidogrel resistance may be caused by insufficient drug absorption or impaired metabolic activation of the drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel and its metabolites in plasma samples from patients treated with high and low doses of clopidogrel, to obtain a possible explanation for antiplatelet resistance.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Metabolism, Cardiovascular disease, Absorption, Pharmacokinetics, Display technology


The mass digitization of books is changing the way information is created, disseminated and displayed. Electronic book readers (e-readers) generally refer to two main display technologies: the electronic ink (E-ink) and the liquid crystal display (LCD). Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages, but the question whether one or the other triggers less visual fatigue is still open. The aim of the present research was to study the effects of the display technology on visual fatigue. To this end, participants performed a longitudinal study in which two last generation e-readers (LCD, E-ink) and paper book were tested in three different prolonged reading sessions separated by - on average - ten days. Results from both objective (Blinks per second) and subjective (Visual Fatigue Scale) measures suggested that reading on the LCD (Kindle Fire HD) triggers higher visual fatigue with respect to both the E-ink (Kindle Paperwhite) and the paper book. The absence of differences between E-ink and paper suggests that, concerning visual fatigue, the E-ink is indeed very similar to the paper.

Concepts: Liquid crystal display, Liquid crystal, E-book, Display device, Display technology, Book, Electronic paper, Amazon Kindle


In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

Concepts: Liquid, Indium tin oxide, Display resolution, Liquid crystal display, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Liquid crystal, Display technology


  Many stereoscopic displays require glasses that are awkward or inappropriate for use in a neurosurgical operating room. A glass-free three-dimensional autostereoscopic display (3DAD) monitor was developed and tested for neurosurgical applications.

Concepts: Surgery, Neurosurgery, Depth perception, Specialty, Display device, Display technology, 3D display, Autostereoscopy


Precise timing and presentation of stimuli is critical in vision research, still, the limiting factor in successful recognition is often the monitor itself that is used to present the stimuli. The most widespread method is the use of monitors controlled by personal computers. Traditionally, most experiments used cathode-ray tubes but they are more and more difficult to access, and instead, liquid-crystal displays are getting more and more popular. The two types have fundamentally different working principles and limitations in displaying the stimulus.In our experiments, the temporal precision of the stimulus presentation was in focus. We investigated whether liquid-crystal displays, which are not considered to be fit to display fast successive stimuli, can represent an alternative choice for cathode-ray tubes. We used the double flash and the flicker illusion to compare the technical capabilities of the two monitor types. These illusions not only do require a precise timing but also a very short exposure to the stimuli. At the same time, the interstimulus interval is also of extreme importance. In addition, these illusions require peripheral stimulation of the retina, which is more sensitive to the temporal aspects of the visual stimulus. On the basis of previous studies and our own psychophysical results, we suggest that liquid-crystal displays might be a good alternative for precise, frame-to-frame stimulus presentation even if parts of the stimuli are projected on the peripheral retina.

Concepts: Retina, Visual perception, Perception, Computer, Display resolution, Liquid crystal display, Display technology, Anti-Monitor


We report an electro-optic image shifter to enhance the resolution of display devices with a Pancharatnam-Berry phase deflector (PBD). The switching time of our PBD is less than 1 ms. Through synchronizing and computational factorization, we are able to double the display resolution for reducing the screen door effect. Such a thin and lightweight PBD image shifter can be easily integrated into wearable display devices. Its potential application for virtual reality and augmented reality is emphasized.

Concepts: Quantum mechanics, Computer graphics, Display resolution, Simulated reality, Virtual reality, Display technology, Augmented reality, Mixed reality


Free-space volumetric displays, or displays that create luminous image points in space, are the technology that most closely resembles the three-dimensional displays of popular fiction. Such displays are capable of producing images in ‘thin air’ that are visible from almost any direction and are not subject to clipping. Clipping restricts the utility of all three-dimensional displays that modulate light at a two-dimensional surface with an edge boundary; these include holographic displays, nanophotonic arrays, plasmonic displays, lenticular or lenslet displays and all technologies in which the light scattering surface and the image point are physically separate. Here we present a free-space volumetric display based on photophoretic optical trapping that produces full-colour graphics in free space with ten-micrometre image points using persistence of vision. This display works by first isolating a cellulose particle in a photophoretic trap created by spherical and astigmatic aberrations. The trap and particle are then scanned through a display volume while being illuminated with red, green and blue light. The result is a three-dimensional image in free space with a large colour gamut, fine detail and low apparent speckle. This platform, named the Optical Trap Display, is capable of producing image geometries that are currently unobtainable with holographic and light-field technologies, such as long-throw projections, tall sandtables and ‘wrap-around’ displays.

Concepts: Optics, Physics, Dimension, Color, Sphere, Display device, Display technology, Volumetric display


The ability to display graphics and texts on a transparent screen can enable many useful applications. Here we create a transparent display by projecting monochromatic images onto a transparent medium embedded with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the projected wavelength. We describe the optimal design of such nanoparticles, and experimentally demonstrate this concept with a blue-color transparent display made of silver nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. This approach has attractive features including simplicity, wide viewing angle, scalability to large sizes and low cost.

Concepts: Economics, Scattering, Nanotechnology, Sol-gel, Gold, Computer graphics, Rayleigh scattering, Display technology


Graphene-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have recently emerged as a key element essential in next-generation displays and lighting, mainly due to their promise for highly flexible light sources. However, their efficiency has been, at best, similar to that of conventional, indium tin oxide-based counterparts. We here propose an ideal electrode structure based on a synergetic interplay of high-index TiO2 layers and low-index hole-injection layers sandwiching graphene electrodes, which results in an ideal situation where enhancement by cavity resonance is maximized yet loss to surface plasmon polariton is mitigated. The proposed approach leads to OLEDs exhibiting ultrahigh external quantum efficiency of 40.8 and 62.1% (64.7 and 103% with a half-ball lens) for single- and multi-junction devices, respectively. The OLEDs made on plastics with those electrodes are repeatedly bendable at a radius of 2.3 mm, partly due to the TiO2 layers withstanding flexural strain up to 4% via crack-deflection toughening.

Concepts: Light, Condensed matter physics, Solar cell, Surface plasmon resonance, Diode, Surface plasmon, Polariton, Display technology


Electronic skin (e-skin) presents a network of mechanically flexible sensors that can conformally wrap irregular surfaces and spatially map and quantify various stimuli. Previous works on e-skin have focused on the optimization of pressure sensors interfaced with an electronic readout, whereas user interfaces based on a human-readable output were not explored. Here, we report the first user-interactive e-skin that not only spatially maps the applied pressure but also provides an instantaneous visual response through a built-in active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display with red, green and blue pixels. In this system, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are turned on locally where the surface is touched, and the intensity of the emitted light quantifies the magnitude of the applied pressure. This work represents a system-on-plastic demonstration where three distinct electronic components-thin-film transistor, pressure sensor and OLED arrays-are monolithically integrated over large areas on a single plastic substrate. The reported e-skin may find a wide range of applications in interactive input/control devices, smart wallpapers, robotics and medical/health monitoring devices.

Concepts: Organic LED, Light-emitting diode, Diode, Display technology, Organic electronics, Light-emitting diodes, OLED, Optical diodes