SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Display device

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The mass digitization of books is changing the way information is created, disseminated and displayed. Electronic book readers (e-readers) generally refer to two main display technologies: the electronic ink (E-ink) and the liquid crystal display (LCD). Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages, but the question whether one or the other triggers less visual fatigue is still open. The aim of the present research was to study the effects of the display technology on visual fatigue. To this end, participants performed a longitudinal study in which two last generation e-readers (LCD, E-ink) and paper book were tested in three different prolonged reading sessions separated by - on average - ten days. Results from both objective (Blinks per second) and subjective (Visual Fatigue Scale) measures suggested that reading on the LCD (Kindle Fire HD) triggers higher visual fatigue with respect to both the E-ink (Kindle Paperwhite) and the paper book. The absence of differences between E-ink and paper suggests that, concerning visual fatigue, the E-ink is indeed very similar to the paper.

Concepts: Liquid crystal display, Liquid crystal, E-book, Display device, Display technology, Book, Electronic paper, Amazon Kindle

28

In this work, the unique properties of graphene oxide were combined with the anion selectivity of metalloporphyrin to fabricate a novel fluoride-selective sensor. The electrode made of 27% PVC, 54% NPOE, 4% NaTPB and 15% NbTPPGO was found to show the most favorable behavior. The sensor shows a Nernstian response (58.3mV decade(-1)) in the concentration window of 5.0×10(-1)-5.0×10(-7)molL(-1)with detection limit of 8.0×10(-87)molL(-1). The response of the sensor was found to be stable in the pH range of 3.0-7.0 and the metalloporphyrin grafted-GO based F(-) sensors displayed very good selectivity with respect to a number of anions. The proposed sensor displays a long life time (more than 12 weeks) with a short response time of about 20s.

Concepts: Cathode, Oxide, PH, Ion, Graphene, Sensor, Short, Display device

27

A volumetric display that creates a distortion-free three-dimensional (3D) image in midair is described. The proposed system consists of rotating prism sheets used as an optical scanner and a dihedral corner reflector array (DCRA), which is a distortion-free imaging element. Two prism sheets are arranged in a symmetrical configuration to reduce an unnatural motion parallax caused by optical aberrations. A cross-section of the 3D image is formed by the DCRA in midair and moved by the rotating prism sheets to create a 3D displayable space. A 3D volume image was displayed without image distortion or unnatural motion parallax.

Concepts: Optics, Volume, Digital photography, Depth perception, Display device, Volumetric display, Prism, Parallelepiped

26

  Many stereoscopic displays require glasses that are awkward or inappropriate for use in a neurosurgical operating room. A glass-free three-dimensional autostereoscopic display (3DAD) monitor was developed and tested for neurosurgical applications.

Concepts: Surgery, Neurosurgery, Depth perception, Specialty, Display device, Display technology, 3D display, Autostereoscopy

25

This study tested whether systematic associations between colors and concepts can be used to infer meaning from visual displays. It is well-known from the Stroop Effect that people are faster at reading a color word when displayed in a congruent text color than in an incongruent color (e.g. “RED” in red ink vs. green ink). However, it is unknown whether this type of facilitation/interference generalizes to abstract associations in ecologically valid domains. We addressed this question within the domain of recycling. We first tested whether participants have systematic associations between colors and to-be-discarded items: paper, glass and trash (Experiment 1). For each object, participants rated how strongly they associated it with each of the Berkeley Color Project 37 colors. White was systematically associated with paper, light blue with glass, and black with trash. In Experiment 2, we tested whether a different group of participants was better at discarding trash/recyclables in bins whose colors were consistent with empirically-derived mappings from Experiment 1 (color-concept consistent) than in bins whose colors were determined from ecologically-based mappings of trash/recycling bins in their environment (Brown University). During each trial participants saw a display of three bins colored in an empirically-based or an ecologically-based color scheme, along with the name of an object (paper, glass or trash). They were instructed to choose which bin was appropriate for discarding the object. The bins were not labeled so participants could only rely on their color intuitions to complete the task. Trials included all combinations of each object (paper/glass/trash) with each color scheme (color positions counterbalanced). Participants were faster and more accurate at discarding objects in the empirically-based colored bins scheme than in ecologically-based bins. The results suggest that not only do people have strong color-concept associations, but color-coding according to those associations facilitates inferring meaning from visual displays. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015.

Concepts: Light, Color, Green, Red, Object, Color theory, Display device, Color wheel

21

Free-space volumetric displays, or displays that create luminous image points in space, are the technology that most closely resembles the three-dimensional displays of popular fiction. Such displays are capable of producing images in ‘thin air’ that are visible from almost any direction and are not subject to clipping. Clipping restricts the utility of all three-dimensional displays that modulate light at a two-dimensional surface with an edge boundary; these include holographic displays, nanophotonic arrays, plasmonic displays, lenticular or lenslet displays and all technologies in which the light scattering surface and the image point are physically separate. Here we present a free-space volumetric display based on photophoretic optical trapping that produces full-colour graphics in free space with ten-micrometre image points using persistence of vision. This display works by first isolating a cellulose particle in a photophoretic trap created by spherical and astigmatic aberrations. The trap and particle are then scanned through a display volume while being illuminated with red, green and blue light. The result is a three-dimensional image in free space with a large colour gamut, fine detail and low apparent speckle. This platform, named the Optical Trap Display, is capable of producing image geometries that are currently unobtainable with holographic and light-field technologies, such as long-throw projections, tall sandtables and ‘wrap-around’ displays.

Concepts: Optics, Physics, Dimension, Color, Sphere, Display device, Display technology, Volumetric display

16

Recently, the role of clothing has evolved from merely body protection, maintaining the body temperature, and fashion, to advanced functions such as various types of information delivery, communication, and even augmented reality. With a wireless internet connection, the integration of circuits and sensors, and a portable power supply, clothes become a novel electronic device. Currently, the information display is the most intuitive interface using visualized communication methods and the simultaneous concurrent processing of inputs and outputs between a wearer and functional clothes. The important aspect in this case is to maintain the characteristic softness of the fabrics even when electronic devices are added to the flexible clothes. Silicone-based light-emitting diode (LED) jackets, shirts, and stage costumes have started to appear, but the intrinsic stiffness of inorganic semiconductors causes wearers to feel discomfort; thus, it is difficult to use such devices for everyday purposes. To address this problem, a method of fabricating a thin and flexible emitting fabric utilizing organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was developed in this work. Its flexibility was evaluated, and an analysis of its mechanical bending characteristics and tests of its long-term reliability were carried out.

Concepts: Transistor, Light-emitting diode, Diode, Electronics, Display device, Electronic engineering, Light-emitting diodes, Clothing

10

The days of rewritable paper are coming, printers of the future will use water-jet paper. Although several kinds of rewritable paper have been reported, practical usage of them is rare. Herein, a new rewritable paper for ink-free printing is proposed and demonstrated successfully by using water as the sole trigger to switch hydrochromic dyes on solid media. Water-jet prints with various colours are achieved with a commercial desktop printer based on these hydrochromic rewritable papers. The prints can be erased and rewritten dozens of times with no significant loss in colour quality. This rewritable paper is promising in that it can serve an eco-friendly information display to meet the increasing global needs for environmental protection.

Concepts: Future, Color, Printing, Inkjet printer, Paper, Switch, Display device, Printer

9

The fast growing family of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds has recently been attracting increased attention owing to the remarkable functional properties (magnetic, multiferroic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic) displayed by some of its members. Here we show that these compounds can also have great potential in the until now unexplored field of solid-state cooling by presenting giant barocaloric effects near room temperature already under easily accessible pressures in the hybrid perovskite [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] (TPrA: tetrapropylammonium, dca: dicyanamide). Moreover, we propose that this will not be an isolated example for such an extraordinary behaviour as many other organic-inorganic hybrids (metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers) exhibit the basic ingredients to display large caloric effects which can be very sensitive to pressure and other external stimuli. These findings open up new horizons and great opportunities for both organic-inorganic hybrids and for solid-state cooling technologies.

Concepts: Effect, Thermodynamics, Effects unit, Pressure, Gas, Hybrid, Display device, Hybrid vehicle

9

Worldwide, hundreds of thousands of humans have had their genomes or exomes sequenced, and access to the resulting data sets can provide valuable information for variant interpretation and understanding gene function. Here, we present a lightweight, flexible browser framework to display large population datasets of genetic variation. We demonstrate its use for exome sequence data from 60 706 individuals in the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The ExAC browser provides gene- and transcript-centric displays of variation, a critical view for clinical applications. Additionally, we provide a variant display, which includes population frequency and functional annotation data as well as short read support for the called variant. This browser is open-source, freely available at http://exac.broadinstitute.org, and has already been used extensively by clinical laboratories worldwide.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Biology, Genome, Data set, Display device