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Concept: Diseases of poverty

25

Studies evaluating the association between coffee consumption and neurovascular diseases have frequently yielded contradictory results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of coffee consumption with small-vessel disease (SVD) incidence in a healthy urban population while accounting for multiple demographic and lifestyle risk factors.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Infectious disease, Poverty, Demography, Prevalence, Diseases of poverty

7

The incidence of mental health disorders is significantly higher in individuals with a rare disease, compared to the general population. This letter considers the possible reasons for this in terms of the many ways in which a rare disease impacts on an individual’s life, and how these impacts can be strongly related to factors which predispose to mental health difficulties.Furthermore, issues surrounding mental health can also play a significant role in the process of diagnosing a rare disease. The unusual nature of such diseases intrinsically predisposes an individual to obtain an inaccurate diagnosis of a psychosomatic disorder, a diagnosis which can often be further complicated by the presence of genuine psychiatric symptoms.This letter argues that these common experiences of rare disease patients have impacts upon the way in which their psychiatric care should be offered and managed, and that sensitivity and understanding surrounding these issues should be considered a necessary part of effective care for rare disease patients.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Medical terms, Demography, Mental disorder, Prevalence, Biopsychosocial model, Diseases of poverty

7

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and provided original proof that an infectious agent can cause human disease. However, key steps in TB pathogenesis remain poorly understood. We propose that autoimmunity is a critical and overlooked process driving pathology in TB, and present clinical and experimental observations supporting this hypothesis.

Concepts: Immune system, Disease, Infectious disease, Poverty, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Diseases of poverty

5

Little is known about long-term changes linking chronic diseases and poverty in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. This study examines how chronic disease mortality rates change across socioeconomic groups over time in Bangladesh, and whether such mortality is associated with households falling into poverty.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Mortality rate, Medical terms, Poverty, Demography, Chronic, Diseases of poverty

4

Vector-borne diseases are on the rise globally. As the consequences of climate change are becoming evident, climate-based models of disease risk are of growing importance. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art in both mechanistic and correlative disease modelling, the data driving these models, the vectors and diseases covered, and climate models applied to assess future risk. We find that modelling techniques have advanced considerably, especially in terms of using ensembles of climate models and scenarios. Effects of extreme events, precipitation regimes, and seasonality on diseases are still poorly studied. Thorough validation of models is still a challenge and is complicated by a lack of field and laboratory data. On a larger scale, the main challenges today lie in cross-disciplinary and cross-sectoral transfer of data and methods.

Concepts: Disease, Poverty, Climate, Weather, Climate change, Model, The Current, Diseases of poverty

4

While recognizing the recent achievement in the global fight against malaria, the disease remains a challenge to health systems in low-income countries. Beyond widespread consensuses about prioritizing malaria prevention, little is known about the prevailing status of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) across different levels of wealth strata. The aim of this study was to evaluate the socioeconomic related dimension of inequalities in malaria prevention interventions.

Concepts: Medicine, Malaria, Africa, Poverty, World Bank, Diseases of poverty

4

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of child death. However, the economic burden of pneumococcal disease in low-income countries is poorly described. We aimed to estimate from a societal perspective, the costs incurred by health providers and families of children with pneumococcal diseases.

Concepts: Disease, Africa, Pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Poverty, Streptococcus, Child, Diseases of poverty

3

Low-income and lower middle-income countries (LLMICs) bear a disproportionate burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). WHO has repeatedly called for more research on poverty and NCDs in these settings, but the current situation remains unquantified. We aimed to assess research output on poverty and NCD risk factors from these countries in relation to upper middle-income and high-income countries.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Infectious disease, Poverty, The Current, Diseases of poverty

3

Growing evidence suggests the deleterious consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment (CM) not only might endure over the exposed individual’s lifespan but also might be transmitted across generations. The time windows, mechanisms, and targets of such intergenerational transmission are poorly understood. The prevailing paradigm posits that mother-to-child transmission of the effects of maternal CM likely occurs after her child’s birth. The authors seek to extend this paradigm and advance a transdisciplinary framework that integrates the concepts of biological embedding of life experiences and fetal origins of health and disease risk.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Disease, Life, Developmental biology, Poverty, Infection, Diseases of poverty

3

Out-of-pocket (OOP) medical expenses often lead to catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, there has been no systematic examination of which specific diseases and conditions (e.g., tuberculosis, cardiovascular disease) drive medical impoverishment, defined as OOP direct medical costs pushing households into poverty.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Infectious disease, Poverty, Non-infectious disease, Evolutionary medicine, Diseases of poverty