Climate for women in climate science: Women scientists and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Published about 3 years ago
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an authoritative and influential source of reports on climate change. The lead authors of IPCC reports include scientists from around the world, but questions have been raised about the dominance of specific disciplines in the report and the disproportionate number of scholars from the Global North. In this paper, we analyze the as-yet-unexamined issue of gender and IPCC authorship, looking at changes in gender balance over time and analyzing women’s views about their experience and barriers to full participation, not only as women but also at the intersection of nationality, race, command of English, and discipline. Over time, we show that the proportion of female IPCC authors has seen a modest increase from less than 5% in 1990 to more than 20% in the most recent assessment reports. Based on responses from over 100 women IPCC authors, we find that many women report a positive experience in the way in which they are treated and in their ability to influence the report, although others report that some women were poorly represented and heard. We suggest that an intersectional lens is important: not all women experience the same obstacles: they face multiple and diverse barriers associated with social identifiers such as race, nationality, command of English, and disciplinary affiliation. The scientific community benefits from including all scientists, including women and those from the Global South. This paper documents barriers to participation and identifies opportunities to diversify climate science.
To summarise quantitative evaluations of interventions designed to support the careers of women in academia of any discipline.
The problem of PhD attrition, especially at the dissertation-writing stage, is not solely related to mentoring, departments, or disciplines; it is a problem that affects the entire institution. As such, solutions require collaborative efforts for student success. Building on Yeatman’s master-apprentice model, which assumes mastering disciplinary writing in singular advisor-student contexts, and Burnett’s collaborative cohort model, which introduced doctoral dissertation supervision in a collaborative-learning environment with several faculty mentors in a single discipline, the Dissertation House model (DHM) introduces a model of doctoral dissertation supervision that involves multiple mentors across several disciplines. On the basis of more than 200 students' reflections, we find that challenges in completing the dissertation extend beyond departmental and disciplinary boundaries. The DHM’s multidisciplinary approach preserves the traditional master-apprentice relationship between faculty and students within academic departments while providing an additional support mechanism through interdisciplinary collaborative cohorts. Using Thoits’s coping assistance theory and data from DH students over a 10-year period, the DHM incorporates Hoadley’s concept of knowledge communities to establish a successful dissertation-writing intervention for graduate students across doctoral programs. Using propensity score analysis, we provide in this study an empirical assessment of the benefits and efficacy of the DHM.
The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency and nature of flow disruptions in the operating room with respect to three cardiac surgical team members: anaesthetists; circulating nurses; and perfusionists. Data collected from 15 cases and coded using a human factors taxonomy identified 878 disruptions. Significant differences were identified in frequency relative to discipline type. Circulating nurses experienced more coordination disruptions (χ(2) (2, N = 110) = 7.136, p < 0.028) and interruptions (χ(2) (2, N = 427) = 29.743, p = 0.001) than anaesthetists and perfusionists, whereas anaesthetists and perfusionists experienced more layout issues than circulating nurses (χ(2) (2, N = 153) = 48.558, p = 0.001). Time to resolve disruptions also varied among disciplines (λ (12, 878) = 5.186, p = 0.000). Although most investigations take a one-size fits all approach in addressing disruptions to flow, this study demonstrates that targeted interventions must focus on differences with respect to individual role.
BACKGROUND: Optimizing pain care requires ready access and use of best evidence within and across different disciplines and settings. The purpose of this randomized trial is to determine whether a technology-based “push” of new, high-quality pain research to physicians, nurses, and rehabilitation and psychology professionals results in better knowledge and clinical decision making around pain, when offered in addition to traditional “pull” evidence technology. A secondary objective is to identify disciplinary variations in response to evidence and differences in the patterns of accessing research evidence. METHODS: Physicians, nurses, occupational/physical therapists, and psychologists (n = 670) will be randomly allocated in a crossover design to receive a pain evidence resource in one of two different ways. Evidence is extracted from medical, nursing, psychology, and rehabilitation journals; appraised for quality/relevance; and sent out (PUSHed) to clinicians by email alerts or available for searches of the accumulated database (PULL). Participants are allocated to either PULL or PUSH + PULL in a randomized crossover design. The PULL intervention has a similar interface but does not send alerts; clinicians can only go to the site and enter search terms to retrieve evidence from the cumulative and continuously updated online database. Upon entry to the trial, there is three months of access to PULL, then random allocation. After six months, crossover takes place. The study ends with a final three months of access to PUSH + PULL. The primary outcomes are uptake and application of evidence. Uptake will be determined by embedded tracking of what research is accessed during use of the intervention. A random subset of 30 participants/ discipline will undergo chart-stimulated recall to assess the nature and depth of evidence utilization in actual case management at baseline and 9 months. A different random subset of 30 participants/ discipline will be tested for their skills in accessing evidence using a standardized simulation test (final 3 months). Secondary outcomes include usage and self-reported evidence-based practice attitudes and behaviors measured at baseline, 3, 9, 15 and 18 months. DISCUSSION: The trial will inform our understanding of information preferences and behaviors across disciplines/practice settings. If this intervention is effective, sustained support will be sought from professional/health system initiatives with an interest in optimizing pain management.Trial registrationRegistered as NCT01348802 on clinicaltrials.gov.
Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms. Participants were 184 kindergartners with and without ADHD and their parents. Harsh and warm dimensions of parental behavior were assessed using questionnaires, observations, and an EMA administered through parents' smartphones, which measured parent-child behaviors every day for a period of 1 week. Family, social, and parenting-related stress were assessed from questionnaires, and child ADHD symptoms were assessed from a fully structured diagnostic interview with the parent. Child ADHD symptoms were associated with variability in warm parenting behaviors, and higher levels of parenting-related stress were related to greater variability in harsh parenting behaviors. No significant interactions were detected between parental stress and child ADHD on parental variability. These findings suggest that different factors influence the consistency in parenting behavior, depending on whether positive parenting or negative parenting is assessed. Parent-based treatment programs for children with ADHD should include a stronger focus on reducing stress from parenting (e.g., teaching coping skills for parents), as this may lead to greater consistency in parental behavior more generally, and presumably better child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record
Women and girls need proper sanitation and hygiene facilities to maintain health and dignity. In this study we show how schoolgirls from a peri-urban community of Ghana, experience severe multidimensional ‘hygiene poverty’ when attending schools. Hygiene poverty was characterized by poor water and sanitation infrastructures and serious social and emotional challenges, including shaming and disciplining of their sanitation and menstrual practices, which forces girls to apply secretive coping strategies. We discuss the importance of changing the negative MHM discourses at schools and fostering supportive teaching methods in adolescent female health.
Publication metadata help deliver rich analyses of scholarly communication. However, research concepts and ideas are more effectively expressed through unstructured fields such as full texts. Thus, the goals of this paper are to employ a full-text enabled method to extract terms relevant to disciplinary vocabularies, and through them, to understand the relationships between disciplines. This paper uses an efficient, domain-independent term extraction method to extract disciplinary vocabularies from a large multidisciplinary corpus of PLoS ONE publications. It finds a power-law pattern in the frequency distributions of terms present in each discipline, indicating a semantic richness potentially sufficient for further study and advanced analysis. The salient relationships amongst these vocabularies become apparent in application of a principal component analysis. For example, Mathematics and Computer and Information Sciences were found to have similar vocabulary use patterns along with Engineering and Physics; while Chemistry and the Social Sciences were found to exhibit contrasting vocabulary use patterns along with the Earth Sciences and Chemistry. These results have implications to studies of scholarly communication as scholars attempt to identify the epistemological cultures of disciplines, and as a full text-based methodology could lead to machine learning applications in the automated classification of scholarly work according to disciplinary vocabularies.
Violent forms of discipline in schools continue to be widespread across the globe despite their damaging effects. Since little is known about factors influencing the extent of violence applied by teachers, this study aimed to investigate the influence of teachers' stress, work satisfaction, and personal characteristics on their disciplining style. Using structural equation modeling, associations between violent discipline, burnout symptoms, and job perceptions (pressure and difficulties in class) reported by 222 teachers from 11 secondary schools in Tanzania in 2015 were analyzed. Results indicated a direct association between perceived stress and emotional violent discipline (β=.18, p<.05) as well as physical violent discipline (β=.37, p<.001). Perceived stress also mediated the association between job perceptions and both forms of violent disciplining. The model showed good model fit (χ(2) [44, n=222]=67.47 (p=.013), CFI=.94, TLI=.91, IFI=.94, RMSEA=.049 [90%-CI=.02-.07, PCLOSE=.50], SRMR=.06). Our findings suggest that teachers' personal perceptions of their work as well as their stress burden play a role in their disciplining styles. Our findings underline the importance of integrating topics, such as stress and coping as well as positive, nonviolent discipline measures into the regular teacher's training and in addition to develop and evaluate school-based preventative interventions for teachers.
Background/Aim Surgical and other disciplines have been noticing difficulties in recruiting junior staff for several years. In response to a decrease in interest within study courses, surgical associations recommend better supervision during undergraduate practical education as “clerkships” in order to increase the attractiveness of surgery. This clerkship has an initiation function, as students for the first time - albeit marginally - can act as physicians. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of clerkships on the disciplinary orientations and preferences of undergraduates' perceptions of specialist training. Methods Medical students of the Otto-von-Guericke University Medical School at Magdeburg were interviewed at 4 different time points in their clinical training (n = 373). The questionnaire included different dimensions on i) their choice of the subjects of clerkships and ii) on their clerkship experiences. Questions were subdivided into 5 basic topics, including 5 options to answer according to “Likert’s scale” ranging from 1 to 5 (“completely true” to “does not apply at all”). Data were statistically analysed. Results Clerkships are an important component of medical studies. Undergraduate medical students deliberately use clerkships to get to know and to discriminate between medical disciplines they consider as possible choices for later specialisation. Their own assessment as well as reported experiences of specific clinics, departments or supervisors influence decision-making with regard to medical disciplines and locations/institutions for clerkships. The contents of the clerkships is expected to be closely related to the medical curricula. Students expect a detailed insight and practical, cross-departmental, interdisciplinary integration and collaboration in the medical discipline selected for clerkship. Clerkship experience in surgery affects the students' preference for surgical disciplines. They are a relevant predictor. Conclusion High-quality teaching - an important part of practical undergraduate training (clerkship) is effective in fostering a subsequent surgical orientation. Preference for surgical specialisation can be strengthened during medical studies by preparing seminars and extended practical experiences during clerkship.