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Concept: Diol


Vitrification of endothelial cells (MHECT-5) has not previously been compared with controlled slow freezing methods under standardized conditions. To identify the best cryopreservation technique, we evaluated vitrification and standardized controlled-rate -1°C/minute cell freezing in a -80°C freezer and tested four cryoprotective agents (CPA), namely dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY), and two media, namely Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium Ham’s F-12 (DMEM)and K+-modified TiProtec (K+TiP), which is a high-potassium-containing medium. Numbers of viable cells in proliferation were evaluated by the CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (Promega Corporation, Mannheim, Germany). To detect the exact frozen cell number per cryo vial, DNA content was measured by using Hoechst 33258 dye prior to analysis. Thus, results could be evaluated unconstrained by absolute cell number. Thawed cells were cultured in 25 cm2 cell culture flasks to confluence and examined daily by phase contrast imaging. With regard to cell recovery immediately after thawing, DMSO was the most suitable CPA combined with K+TiP in vitrification (99 ±0.5%) and with DMEM in slow freezing (92 ±1.6%). The most viable cells in proliferation after three days of culture were obtained in cells vitrificated by using GLY with K+TiP (308 ±34%) and PG with DMEM in slow freezing (280 ±27%).

Concepts: Ethylene, Glycerol, Diol, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Cryoprotectant, Ethylene glycol, Propylene glycol, Cryobiology


Methoxy poly (ethylene glycol) grafted carboxymethyl chitosan (mPEG-g-CMC) and alginate were chosen as the constituents of hydrogel beads for the construction of an interpenetrating polymeric network matrix. A contrast study between the mPEG-g-CMC hydrogel and mPEG physically mixed with CMC hydrogel was carried out. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model for a protein drug was encapsulated in the hydrogel network, and the drug release properties were studied. The hydrogels prepared by these two methods maintained good pH sensitivity; the loading capacity of the mPEG-g-CMC/alginate hydrogel was enhanced in comparison with that of the hydrogel prepared by physically mixing mPEG. The burst release of the protein was slightly decreased at pH 1.2, while the release at pH 7.4 was improved, suggesting that the mPEG-g-CMC/alginate pH-sensitive hydrogel will be promising for site-specific protein drug delivery in the intestine.

Concepts: Diol, Polyester, Polysaccharide, Blood, Polymer, Bovine serum albumin, Ethylene glycol, Serum albumin


E-liquids generally contain four main components: nicotine, flavours, water and carrier liquids. The carrier liquid dissolves flavours and nicotine and vaporises at a certain temperature on the atomizer of the e-cigarette. Propylene glycol and glycerol, the principal carriers used in e-liquids, undergo decomposition in contact with the atomizer heating-coil forming volatile carbonyls. Some of these, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, are of concern due to their adverse impact on human health when inhaled at sufficient concentrations. The aim of this study was to correlate the yield of volatile carbonyls emitted by e-cigarettes with the temperature of the heating coil. For this purpose, a popular commercial e-liquid was machine-vaped on a third generation e-cigarette which allowed the variation of the output wattage (5-25W) and therefore the heat generated on the atomizer heating-coil. The temperature of the heating-coil was determined by infrared thermography and the vapour generated at each temperature underwent subjective sensorial quality evaluation by an experienced vaper. A steep increase in the generated carbonyls was observed when applying a battery-output of at least 15W corresponding to 200-250°C on the heating coil. However, when considering concentrations in each inhaled puff, the short-term indoor air guideline value for formaldehyde was already exceeded at the lowest wattage of 5W, which is the wattage applied in most 2nd generation e-cigarettes. Concentrations of acetaldehyde in each puff were several times below the short-term irritation threshold value for humans. Acrolein was only detected from 20W upwards. The negative sensorial quality evaluation by the volunteering vaper of the vapour generated at 20W demonstrated the unlikelihood that such a wattage would be realistically set by a vaper. This study highlights the importance to develop standardised testing methods for the assessment of carbonyl-emissions and emissions of other potentially harmful compounds from e-cigarettes. The wide variety and variability of products available on the market make the development of such methods and the associated standardised testing conditions particularly demanding.

Concepts: Diol, Tobacco, Thermography, Evaluation, Glycerol, Nicotine, Electronic cigarette, Propylene glycol


Glycol ethers are a class of semi-volatile substances used as solvents in a variety of consumer products like cleaning agents, paints, cosmetics as well as chemical intermediates. We determined 11 metabolites of ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in 44 urine samples of German residents (background level study) and in urine samples of individuals after exposure to glycol ethers during cleaning activities (exposure study). In the study on the background exposure, methoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) could be detected in each urine sample with median (95th percentile) values of 0.11mgL(-1) (0.30mgL(-1)) and 0.80mgL(-1) (23.6mgL(-1)), respectively. The other metabolites were found in a limited number of samples or in none. In the exposure study, 5-8 rooms were cleaned with a cleaner containing ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), propylene glycol monobutyl ether (PGBE), or ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (EGPE). During cleaning the mean levels in the indoor air were 7.5mgm(-3) (EGBE), 3.0mgm(-3) (PGBE), and 3.3mgm(-3) (EGPE), respectively. The related metabolite levels analysed in the urine of the residents of the rooms at the day of cleaning were 2.4mgL(-1) for butoxyacetic acid, 0.06mgL(-1) for 2-butoxypropionic acid, and 2.3mgL(-1) for n-propoxyacetic acid. Overall, our study indicates that the exposure of the population to glycol ethers is generally low, with the exception of PhAA. Moreover, the results of the cleaning scenarios demonstrate that the use of indoor cleaning agents containing glycol ethers can lead to a detectable internal exposure of residents.

Concepts: Urinalysis, Arithmetic mean, Diol, Background radiation, Median, Ethylene glycol, Glycol ethers, Propylene glycol


To the Editor: The data presented by Jensen et al. (Jan. 22 issue)(1) in their recent letter to the Editor do not support their conclusion that e-cigarette use presents a likely risk of excessive exposure to formaldehyde. The 5-V puff topography used by Jensen et al. appears to have overheated the coil, resulting in excessive breakdown of propylene glycol to formaldehyde. This phenomenon is readily detected by the consumer by virtue of an exceedingly unpleasant burning taste, commonly referred to as a “dry puff.” It has been described in detail in the literature.(2),(3) The consumer can address this issue . . .

Concepts: Ethylene glycol, Electronic cigarette, Formaldehyde, Debut albums, Oxygen, Diol, Propylene glycol


Sustainability, renewability and biodegradability of polymeric material constantly gain in importance. A plausible approach is the recycling of agricultural waste proteins such as keratin, wheat gluten, casein or gelatin. The latter is abundantly available from animal by-products and may well serve as building block for novel polymeric products. In this work, a procedure for the dry-wet spinning of multifilament gelatin yarns was developed. The process stands out as precipitated gelatin from a ternary mixture (gelatin/solvent/non-solvent) was spun into porous filaments. About 1'000 filaments were twisted into 2-ply yarns with good tenacity (4.7 cN tex-1). The gelatin yarns - per se susceptible to water - were crosslinked by different polyfunctional epoxides and examined in terms of free lysyl amino groups and swelling degree in water. Ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether exhibited the highest crosslinking efficiency. Further post-treatments with gaseous formaldehyde and wool grease (lanolin) rendered the gelatin yarns water-resistant, allowing for multiple swelling cycles in water or in detergent solution. However, the swelling caused a decrease in filament porosity from ~ 30 % to just below 10 %. To demonstrate the applicability of gelatin yarn in a consumer good, a gelatin glove with good thermal insulation capacity was fabricated.

Concepts: Polymer chemistry, Wheat, Diol, Protein, Shoe polish, Ethylene glycol, Amino acid, Wool


The direct depolymerization of SiO2 to distillable alkoxysilanes has been explored repeatedly without success for 85 years as an alternative to carbothermal reduction (1900 °C) to Simet , followed by treatment with ROH. We report herein the base-catalyzed depolymerization of SiO2 with diols to form distillable spirocyclic alkoxysilanes and Si(OEt)4 . Thus, 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol, or ethylene glycol (EGH2 ) react with silica sources, such as rice hull ash, in the presence of NaOH (10 %) to form H2 O and distillable spirocyclic alkoxysilanes [bis(2-methyl-2,4-pentanediolato) silicate, bis(2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediolato) silicate or Si(eg)2 polymer with 5-98 % conversion, as governed by surface area/crystallinity. Si(eg)2 or bis(2-methyl-2,4-pentanediolato) silicate reacted with EtOH and catalytic acid to give Si(OEt)4 in 60 % yield, thus providing inexpensive routes to high-purity precipitated or fumed silica and compounds with single SiC bonds.

Concepts: Silicon, Ethylene, Carbon dioxide, Silicon dioxide, Diol, Ethylene glycol, Oxygen, Ethanol


C2-C4 diols classically derived from fossil resource are very important bulk chemicals which have been used in a wide range of areas, including solvents, fuels, polymers, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Production of C2-C4 diols from renewable resources has received significant interest in consideration of the reducing fossil resource and the increasing environmental issues. While bioproduction of certain diols like 1,3-propanediol has been commercialized in recent years, biosynthesis of many other important C2-C4 diol isomers is highly challenging due to the lack of natural synthesis pathways. Recent advances in synthetic biology have enabled the de novo design of completely new pathways to non-natural molecules from renewable feedstocks. In this study, we review recent advances in bioproduction of C2-C4 diols, focusing on new metabolic pathways and metabolic engineering strategies being developed. We also discuss the challenges and future trends toward the development of economically competitive processes for bio-based diol production.

Concepts: Diol, Amino acid, Habitat conservation, Renewable resource, Metabolism, Enzyme, Adenosine triphosphate, Natural resource


A library of bidentate diols, as well as tridentate triols and aminodiols, derived from (+)-sabinol, was synthesized in a stereoselective manner. Sabinol was transformed into allylic trichloroacetamide via Overman rearrangement of the corresponding trichloroacetimidate. After changing the protecting group to Boc, the enamine was subjected to stereospecific dihydroxylation with OsO₄/NMO, resulting in the (1R,2R,3R,5R)-aminodiol diastereomer. The obtained primary aminodiol was transformed to a secondary analogue. The ring closure of the N-benzyl-substituted aminodiol with formaldehyde was investigated and regioselective formation of the spiro-oxazolidine ring was observed. Hydroboration or dihydroxylation of sabinol or its benzyl ether with OsO₄/NMO resulted in the formation of sabinane-based diols and triols following a highly stereospecific reaction. Treatment of sabinol with m-CPBA afforded O-benzoyl triol as a diastereoisomer of the directly dihydroxylated product, instead of the expected epoxy alcohol. The resulting aminodiols, diol, and triols were applied as chiral catalysts in the reaction of diethylzinc and benzaldehyde from moderate to good selectivity.

Concepts: Alcohol, Amine, Diastereomer, Functional groups, Stereospecificity, Ligand, Stereochemistry, Diol


Two new cadmium bromoplumbates [CdPb2Br2L2]n(1, L = ethylene glycol) and [CdPb6Br6L4]n(2) have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1 contains 1-D neutral heterometallic chains [CdPb2Br2L2]n, which are further connected via weak Pb-Br bonds, resulting in a 3-D network structure. The 3-D framework of 2 is constructed by the interconnection of a 2-D neutral layer [CdPb6Br6L4]nvia weak Pb-Br bonds. The [CdPb6Br6L4]nlayer is based on the linkages of dimeric [Pb2Br4] units and heterometallic crown [Cd(Pb4O4)Br2] clusters containing a rare eight-membered [Pb4O4] ring. Although a few heterometallic bromoplumbate clusters have been reported, they usually exhibit molecular moieties. 2 represents the only example of 3-D heterometallic bromoplumbate based on the combination of heterometallic crown [Cd(Pb4O4)Br2] clusters and dimeric [Pb2Br4] units. Their optical properties are studied and density functional theory calculations for 1 and 2 have also been performed.

Concepts: Ethylene, Diol, Optics, Functional group, Structure, Computational chemistry, Ethylene glycol, Density functional theory