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Concept: Dimethyl sulfoxide

167

Development of techniques to isolate, culture, and transplant human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) has the future potential to treat male infertility. To maximize the efficiency of these techniques, methods for SSC cryopreservation need to be developed to bank SSCs for extended periods of time. Although, it has been demonstrated that SSCs can reinitiate spermatogenesis after freezing, optimal cryopreservation protocols that maximize SSC proliferative capacity post-thaw have not been identified. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation technique for preservation of SSCs. To identify efficient cryopreservation methods for long-term preservation of SSCs, isolated testis cells enriched for SSCs were placed in medium containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or DMSO and trehalose (50 mM, 100 mM, or 200 mM), and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 1 week, 1 month, or 3 months. Freezing in 50 mM trehalose resulted in significantly higher cell viability compared to DMSO at all thawing times and a higher proliferation rate compared to DMSO for the 1 week freezing period. Freezing in 200 mM trehalose did not result in increased cell viability; however, proliferation activity was significantly higher and percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly lower compared to DMSO after freezing for 1 and 3 months. To confirm the functionality of SSCs frozen in 200 mM trehalose, SSC transplantation was performed. Donor SSCs formed spermatogenic colonies and sperm capable of generating normal progeny. Collectively, these results indicate that freezing in DMSO with 200 mM trehalose serves as an efficient method for the cryopreservation of SSCs.

Concepts: Organ transplant, Food preservation, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Cryobiology, Cryopreservation, Cryoprotectant, Sulfoxide, Dimethyl sulfide

148

Vitrification of endothelial cells (MHECT-5) has not previously been compared with controlled slow freezing methods under standardized conditions. To identify the best cryopreservation technique, we evaluated vitrification and standardized controlled-rate -1°C/minute cell freezing in a -80°C freezer and tested four cryoprotective agents (CPA), namely dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerol (GLY), and two media, namely Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium Ham’s F-12 (DMEM)and K+-modified TiProtec (K+TiP), which is a high-potassium-containing medium. Numbers of viable cells in proliferation were evaluated by the CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (Promega Corporation, Mannheim, Germany). To detect the exact frozen cell number per cryo vial, DNA content was measured by using Hoechst 33258 dye prior to analysis. Thus, results could be evaluated unconstrained by absolute cell number. Thawed cells were cultured in 25 cm2 cell culture flasks to confluence and examined daily by phase contrast imaging. With regard to cell recovery immediately after thawing, DMSO was the most suitable CPA combined with K+TiP in vitrification (99 ±0.5%) and with DMEM in slow freezing (92 ±1.6%). The most viable cells in proliferation after three days of culture were obtained in cells vitrificated by using GLY with K+TiP (308 ±34%) and PG with DMEM in slow freezing (280 ±27%).

Concepts: Ethylene glycol, Ethylene, Diol, Propylene glycol, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Glycerol, Cryobiology, Cryoprotectant

130

Vasectomy is currently the only long-acting contraceptive option available for men, despite increasing demand and potentially significant positive impacts on human health of additional male contraceptive options. Vasalgel ™ is a high molecular weight hydrogel polymer being developed as a non-hormonal long-acting reversible male contraceptive. Vasalgel consists of styrene-alt-maleic acid dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, which is distinct from styrene-alt-maleic anhydride materials previously studied.

Concepts: Oxygen, Health, Human, Sulfur, Dimethyl sulfoxide

35

The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences.

Concepts: Functional group, Milk, Lactation, Sulfur, Breast, Garlic, Breast milk, Dimethyl sulfoxide

28

For the realization of high-efficiency flexible optoelectronic devices, transparent electrodes should be fabricated through a low-temperature process and have the crucial feature of low surface roughness. In this paper, we demonstrated a two-step spray-coating method for producing large-scale, smooth and flexible silver nanowire (AgNW)-poly3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) composite electrodes. Without the high-temperature annealing process, the conductivity of the composite film was improved via the lamination of highly conductive PEDOT:PSS modified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Under the room temperature process condition, we fabricated the AgNW-PEDOT:PSS composite film showing an 84.3% mean optical transmittance with a 10.76 Ω sq(-1) sheet resistance. The figure of merit Φ(TC) was higher than that obtained from the indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The sheet resistance of the composite film slightly increased less than 5.3% during 200 cycles of tensile and compression folding, displaying good electromechanical flexibility for use in flexible optoelectronic applications.

Concepts: Semiconductor, Solar cell, Indium tin oxide, PEDOT:PSS, Indium(III) oxide, Indium, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Transparent electrodes

28

Aliphatic C-H functionalization at indole 2α-position mediated by acyloxythionium species generated from sulfoxide and acid anhydride has been developed. The combination of sulfoxide and TFAA with O-, N- and C-nucleophiles enabled introduction of various substituents in a one-pot procedure. Especially on utilizing DMSO, the combination provided a practical and efficient method for the synthesis of a wide range of 2α-substituted indoles.

Concepts: Oxygen, Functional groups, Acid anhydride, Carboxylic acid, Indole, Method, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Acetic anhydride

28

Separation of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has been a bottleneck in WPCBs resource processing. In this study, the separation of WPCBs was performed using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. Various parameters, which included solid to liquid ratio, temperature, WPCB sizes, and time, were studied to understand the separation of WPCBs by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using DMSO. Experimental results showed that the concentration of dissolving the bromine epoxy resin increased with increasing various parameters. The optimum condition of complete separation of WPCBs was solid to liquid ratio of 1:7 and WPCB sizes of 16mm(2) at 145°C for 60min. The used DMSO was vapored under the decompression, which obtained the regenerated DMSO and dissolved bromine epoxy resin. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to separate valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent the environmental pollution of waste printed circuit boards effectively.

Concepts: Dimethyl sulfoxide, Printed circuit board, FR-4, Breadboard, Electronic engineering, Via

28

The irreversibility and autocatalytic character of amyloidogenesis and the polymorphism of amyloid fibrils underlie the phenomenon of self-propagating strains, wherein the mother seed, rather than the seeding environment, determines the properties of daughter fibrils. Here we study the formation of amyloid fibrils from bovine insulin and the recombinant Lys(B31)-Arg(B32) human insulin analog. The two polypeptides are similar enough to cross-seed but, upon spontaneous aggregation, form amyloid fibrils with distinct spectral features in the infrared amide I' band region. When bovine insulin is cross-seeded with the analog amyloid (and vice versa), the shape, absorption maximum, and even fine fingerprint features of the amide I' band are passed from the mother to daughter fibrils with a high degree of fidelity. Although the differences in primary structure between bovine insulin and the Lys(B31)-Arg(B32) analog of human insulin lie outside of the polypeptide’s critical amyloidogenic regions, they affect the secondary structure of fibrils, possibly the formation of intermolecular salt bridges, and the susceptibility to dissection and denaturation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). All these phenotypic features of mother fibrils are imprinted in daughter amyloid upon cross-seeding. Analysis of noncooperative DMSO-induced denaturation of daughter fibrils suggests that the self-propagating polymorphism underlying the emergence of new amyloid strains is encoded on the level of secondary structure. Our findings have been discussed in the context of polymorphism of fibrils, amyloid strains, and possible implications for mechanisms of amyloidogenesis.

Concepts: Protein, Protein structure, Amino acid, Insulin, Amyloid, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Eli Lilly and Company, Insulin analog

27

The intracellular ice formation (IIF) behavior of Haliotis diversicolor (small abalone) eggs is investigated in this study, in relation to controlling the cooling rate and the concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The IIF phenomena are monitored under a self-developed thermoelectric cooling (TEC) cryomicroscope system which can achieve accurate temperature control without the use of liquid nitrogen. The accuracy of the isothermal and ramp control is within ±0.5°C. The IIF results indicate that the IIF of small abalone eggs is well suppressed at cooling rates of 1.5, 3, 7 and 12°C/min with 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 M DMSO in sea water. As 2.0 M DMSO in sea water is the minimum concentration that has sufficient IIF suppression, it is selected as the suspension solution for the cryopreservation of small abalone eggs in order to consider the solution’s toxicity effect. Moreover, IIF characteristics of the cumulative probability of IIF temperature distribution are shown to be well fitted by the Weibull probabilistic distribution. According to our IIF results and the Weibull distribution parameters, we conclude that cooling at 1.5°C/min from 20 to -50°C with 2.0 M DMSO in sea water is more feasible than other combinations of cooling rates and DMSO concentrations in our experiments. Applying this protocol and observing the subsequent osmotic activity, 48.8% of small abalone eggs are osmotically active after thawing. In addition, the higher the cooling rate, the less chance of osmotically active eggs. A separate fertility test experiment, with a cryopreservation protocol of 1.5°C/min cooling rate and 2.0 M DMSO in sea water, achieves a hatching rate of 23.7%. This study is the first to characterize the IIF behavior of small abalone eggs in regard to the cooling rate and the DMSO concentration. The Weibull probabilistic model fitting in this study is an approach that can be applied by other researchers for effective cryopreservation variability estimation and analysis.

Concepts: Concentration, Liquid, Probability theory, Solution, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Cryobiology, Cryoprotectant, Dimethyl sulfide

6

Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has emerged as an alternative strategy to treat knee osteoarthritis. In this context, MSCs derived from synovial fluid could provide higher chondrogenic and cartilage regeneration, presenting synovial fluid as an appropriate MSCs source. An allogeneic and biomimetic bioscaffold composed of Platelet Rich Plasma and synovial fluid that preserve and mimics the natural environment of MSCs isolated from knee has also been developed. We have optimized the cryopreservation of knee-isolated MSCs embedded within the aforementioned biomimetic scaffold, in order to create a reserve of young autologous embedded knee MSCs for future clinical applications. We have tested several cryoprotectant solutions combining dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), sucrose and human serum and quantifying the viability and functionality of the embedded MSCs after thawing. MSCs embedded in bioscaffolds cryopreserved with DMSO 10% or the combination of DMSO 10% and Sucrose 0,2 M displayed the best cell viabilities maintaining the multilineage differentiation potential of MSCs after thawing. In conclusion, embedded young MSCs within allogeneic biomimetic bioscaffold can be cryopreserved with the cryoprotectant solutions described in this work, allowing their future clinical use in patients with cartilage defects.

Concepts: Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Bone marrow, Cartilage, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Cryobiology, Cryopreservation, Cryoprotectant