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Concept: Digital subtraction angiography

161

We report on oxygenation changes noninvasively recorded by multichannel continuous-wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) during endovascular neuroradiologic interventions requiring temporary balloon occlusion of arteries supplying the cerebral circulation. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) provides reference data on the site, timing, and effectiveness of the flow stagnation as well as on the amount and direction of collateral circulation. This setting allows us to relate CW-NIRS findings to brain specific perfusion changes. We focused our analysis on the transition from normal perfusion to vessel occlusion, i.e., before hypoxia becomes clinically apparent. The localization of the maximal response correlated either with the core (occlusion of the middle cerebral artery) or with the watershed areas (occlusion of the internal carotid artery) of the respective vascular territories. In one patient with clinically and angiographically confirmed insufficient collateral flow during carotid artery occlusion, the total hemoglobin concentration became significantly asymmetric, with decreased values in the ipsilateral watershed area and contralaterally increased values. Multichannel CW-NIRS monitoring might serve as an objective and early predictive marker of critical perfusion changes during interventions-to prevent hypoxic damage of the brain. It also might provide valuable human reference data on oxygenation changes as they typically occur during acute stroke.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 4 December 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.207.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Blood, Middle cerebral artery, Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery, Anterior cerebral artery, Infrared, Digital subtraction angiography

28

To compare the diagnostic performance of 320-detector row computed tomographic angiography (CTA) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Medical imaging, Computed tomography angiography, Angiography, Magnetic resonance angiography, Radiology, Digital subtraction angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography

27

PURPOSE.: To assess the benefits of using a low-frequency convex probe and detecting ophthalmic artery blood flow for the differential diagnosis of occlusion from severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA). METHODS.: A total of 103 patients were enrolled and had three sequential examinations by an experienced sonographer. First, the proximal ICA was examined with a 5.0-7.5-MHz linear probe. Second, the distal ICA was examined with a 3.5-5.0-MHz convex probe. Third, the ophthalmic artery (OA) was examined with a 5.0-7.5-MHz linear probe. Three parallel sets of diagnoses were made based on results from (1) high-frequency ultrasonography; (2) combined use of high- and low-frequency ultrasonography; and (3) combined use of high- and low-frequency ultrasonography along with OAs examination findings. Efficiencies of the three diagnoses were compared by receiver operating characteristic curves with digital subtraction angiography as the gold standard. RESULTS.: The second diagnostic approach yielded the highest sensitivity (96.6%) and specificity (94.5%). OA blood flow was reversed in most, but not all, cases of ICA occlusion (27/29). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the three diagnoses were significantly different (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS.: The diagnostic performance of combined high- and low-frequency ultrasonography is greater than that of high-frequency ultrasonography alone. Although OA examination does not increase the diagnostic performance, it provides helpful data for the assessment of hemodynamics and collateral circulation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2012.

Concepts: Medical terms, Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery, Radiology, Medical ultrasonography, Digital subtraction angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography, Ophthalmic artery

25

OBJECT Although the development and prevalence of cerebral vasospasm (CV) has been extensively investigated in adults, little data exist on the development of CV in children. The authors hypothesized that even though children have highly vasoreactive arteries, because of a robust cerebral collateral blood flow, they rarely develop symptomatic CV. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed their university hospital’s neurointerventional database for children (that is, patients ≤ 18 years) who were examined or treated for aneurysmal or traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during the period 1990-2013. Images from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were analyzed for the extent of CV and collateralization of the cerebral circulation. Results from transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography were correlated with those from DSA. Cerebral vasospasm on TCD ultrasonography was defined according to criteria developed for adults. Clinical outcomes of CV were assessed with the pediatric modified Rankin Scale (mRS). RESULTS Among 37 children (21 boys and 16 girls ranging in age from 8 months to 18 years) showing symptoms of an aneurysmal SAH (comprising 32 aneurysms and 5 traumatic pseudoaneurysms), 17 (46%) had CV confirmed by DSA; CV was mild in 21% of these children, moderate in 50%, and severe in 29%. Only 3 children exhibited symptomatic CV, all of whom had poor collateralization of cerebral vessels. Among the 14 asymptomatic children, 10 (71%) showed some degree of vessel collateralization. Among 16 children for whom TCD data were available that could be correlated with the DSA findings, 13 (81%) had CV according to TCD criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of TCD ultrasonography for diagnosing CV were 95% and 59%, respectively. The time to CV onset detected by TCD ultrasonography was 5 ± 3 days (range 2-10 days). Twenty-five (68%) of the children had good long-term outcomes (that is, had mRS scores of 0-2). CONCLUSIONS Children have a relatively high incidence of angiographically detectable, moderate-to-severe CV. Children rarely develop symptomatic CV and have good long-term outcomes, perhaps due to robust cerebral collateral blood flow. Criteria developed for detecting CV with TCD ultrasonography in adults overestimate the prevalence of CV in children. Larger studies are needed to define TCD ultrasonography-based CV criteria for children.

Concepts: Type I and type II errors, Sensitivity and specificity, Modified Rankin Scale, Angiography, Radiology, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Digital subtraction angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography

16

Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly spinal manipulative therapies for the relief of cervical spine-related conditions worldwide, but its use remains controversial. CSM may carry the potential for serious neurovascular complications, primarily due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and subsequent vertebrobasilar stroke. Here, we reported a rare case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to bilaterial VAD after CSM treated by arterial embolectomy.A 36-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with numbness and weakness of limbs after treating with CSM for neck for half an hour. Gradually, although the patient remained conscious, he could not speak but could communicate with the surrounding by blinking or moving his eyes, and turned to complete quadriplegia, complete facial and bulbar palsy, dyspnea at 4 hours after admission. He was diagnosed with LIS. Then, the patient was received cervical and brain computed tomography angiography that showed bilateral VAD. Aortocranial digital subtraction angiography showed vertebrobasilar thrombosis, blocking left vertebral artery, and stenosis of right vertebral artery. The patient was treated by using emergency arterial embolectomy and followed by antiplatelet therapy and supportive therapy in the intensive care unit and a general ward. Twenty-seven days later, the patient’s physical function gradually improved and discharged but still left neurological deficit with muscle strength grade 3/5 and hyperreflexia of limbs.Our findings suggested that CSM might have potential severe side-effect like LIS due to bilaterial VAD, and arterial embolectomy is an important treatment choice. The practitioner must be aware of this complication and should give the patients informed consent to CSM, although not all stroke cases temporally related to SCM have pre-existing craniocervical artery dissection.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Vertebral column, Angiography, Vertebral artery dissection, Vertebral artery, Digital subtraction angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography, Subclavian artery

3

Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) are a rare cerebrovascular complication of systemic infections induced by microbial infiltration and degradation of the arterial vessel wall. Studies on the epidemiology and management of IIAs are limited to case reports and retrospective single-center studies, and report a large variability in epidemiological features, management, and outcomes due to the limited sample size. We conducted a systematic review of all published papers on IIAs in the English literature using MEDLINE and SCOPUS database from January 1950 to June 2017. A total of 288 publications describing 1191 patients with IIA (1398 aneurysms) were included and reviewed for epidemiological features, disease features, treatment and outcome. All patients were merged into a single cohort and summary data are presented. The majority of reported IIAs are distally located, relatively small (<5 mm), involve the anterior circulation, are associated with a relatively high rate of rupture, and demonstrate a propensity to multiplicity of aneurysms. Sensitive diagnosis of IIAs requires digital subtraction angiography and not CT angiography or MR angiography. Treatment of ruptured, symptomatic, or enlarging IIAs has evolved over the last 50 years. Endovascular therapy is associated with a high success rate and low morbidity compared with microsurgical and medical management. A treatment algorithm for the management of patients with IIA in various contexts is proposed and the need for prospective multicenter studies is emphasized.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Atherosclerosis, Medical imaging, Computed tomography angiography, Angiography, Magnetic resonance angiography, Digital subtraction angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography

3

In this study, we aim to assess the efficacy and safety of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and super-selective mesenteric artery embolisation in managing lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) at a multi-centre health service in Melbourne (Australia).

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Atheroma, Surgery, Angiography, Radiology, Digital subtraction angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography, Gastrointestinal bleeding

3

What are the diagnostic yield and accuracy of early computed tomography (CT) angiography followed by magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage?

Concepts: Medical imaging, Radiography, Computed tomography angiography, Angiography, Magnetic resonance angiography, Radiology, Digital subtraction angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography

1

Cerebral intraoperative DSA (IODSA) is a well-described, routinely performed procedure that allows the effectiveness of cerebrovascular interventions to be evaluated in the operating room. Spinal IODSA, on the other hand, is infrequently obtained and has received less attention.

Concepts: Angiography, Radiology, Digital subtraction angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography

0

This paper describes an ongoing investigation of imaging and characterization of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and investigated the use of color-coded digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to assess reperfusion injury or potential injury.

Concepts: Surgery, Angiography, Radiology, Reperfusion injury, Digital subtraction angiography, Intravenous digital subtraction angiography, Reperfusion