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Concept: Digital media

243

Given the pervasive use of screen-based media and the high prevalence of insufficient sleep among American youth and teenagers, this brief report summarizes the literature on electronic media and sleep and provides research recommendations. Recent systematic reviews of the literature reveal that the vast majority of studies find an adverse association between screen-based media consumption and sleep health, primarily via delayed bedtimes and reduced total sleep duration. The underlying mechanisms of these associations likely include the following: (1) time displacement (ie, time spent on screens replaces time spent sleeping and other activities); (2) psychological stimulation based on media content; and (3) the effects of light emitted from devices on circadian timing, sleep physiology, and alertness. Much of our current understanding of these processes, however, is limited by cross-sectional, observational, and self-reported data. Further experimental and observational research is needed to elucidate how the digital revolution is altering sleep and circadian rhythms across development (infancy to adulthood) as pathways to poor health, learning, and safety outcomes (eg, obesity, depression, risk-taking).

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep disorder, Adolescence, Circadian rhythm, Chronotype, Electronic media, Diurnality, Digital media

29

A range of digitized health promotion practices have emerged in the digital era. Some of these practices are voluntarily undertaken by people who are interested in improving their health and fitness, but many others are employed in the interests of organizations and agencies. This article provides a critical commentary on digitized health promotion. I begin with an overview of the types of digital technologies that are used for health promotion, and follow this with a discussion of the socio-political implications of such use. It is contended that many digitized health promotion strategies focus on individual responsibility for health and fail to recognize the social, cultural and political dimensions of digital technology use. The increasing blurring between voluntary health promotion practices, professional health promotion, government and corporate strategies requires acknowledgement, as does the increasing power wielded by digital media corporations over digital technologies and the data they generate. These issues provoke questions for health promotion as a practice and field of research that hitherto have been little addressed.

Concepts: Technology, Responsibility, Health promotion, Digital, Corporation, Individual responsibility, Digital media

28

In this paper we compare two academic networking platforms, HASTAC and Hypotheses, to show the distinct ways in which they serve specific communities in the Digital Humanities (DH) in different national and disciplinary contexts. After providing background information on both platforms, we apply co-word analysis and topic modeling to show thematic similarities and differences between the two sites, focusing particularly on how they frame DH as a new paradigm in humanities research. We encounter a much higher ratio of posts using humanities-related terms compared to their digital counterparts, suggesting a one-way dependency of digital humanities-related terms on the corresponding unprefixed labels. The results also show that the terms digital archive, digital literacy, and digital pedagogy are relatively independent from the respective unprefixed terms, and that digital publishing, digital libraries, and digital media show considerable cross-pollination between the specialization and the general noun. The topic modeling reproduces these findings and reveals further differences between the two platforms. Our findings also indicate local differences in how the emerging field of DH is conceptualized and show dynamic topical shifts inside these respective contexts.

Concepts: Difference, Academia, Humanities, Book, Library, Project Gutenberg, Digital media, Digital humanities

1

OBJECTIVE:Digital technologies offer new platforms for health promotion and disease management. Few studies have evaluated the use of digital technology among families receiving care in an urban pediatric primary care setting.METHODS:A self-administered survey was given to a convenience sample of caregivers bringing their children to 2 urban pediatric primary care centers in spring 2012. The survey assessed access to home Internet, e-mail, smartphone, and social media (Facebook and Twitter). A “digital technology” scale (0-4) quantified the number of available digital technologies and connections. Frequency of daily use and interest in receiving medical information digitally were also assessed.RESULTS:The survey was completed by 257 caregivers. The sample was drawn from a clinical population that was 73% African American and 92% Medicaid insured with a median patient age of 2.9 years (interquartile range 0.8-7.4). Eighty percent of respondents reported having Internet at home, and 71% had a smartphone. Ninety-one percent reported using e-mail, 78% Facebook, and 27% Twitter. Ninety-seven percent scored ≥1 on the digital technology scale; 49% had a digital technology score of 4. The digital technology score was associated with daily use of digital media in a graded fashion (P < .0001). More than 70% of respondents reported that they would use health care information supplied digitally if approved by their child's medical provider.CONCLUSIONS:Caregivers in an urban pediatric primary care setting have access to and frequently use digital technologies. Digital connections may help reach a traditionally hard-to-reach population.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Web 2.0, Internet, Primary care physician, Digital, Social media, Digital media

0

This article reviews the available literature regarding the interaction between child and adolescent anxiety and electronic media. It reviews current research contributing to understanding of the correlation of youth anxiety with engagement in social media and other online platforms, including risk and protective factors. mHealth and eHealth prevention and treatment options, available via various digital resources, are discussed. Suggestions for mental health clinicians' assessment of client’s online behaviors and a review of novel treatment options are provided. The article concludes with proposing healthy online technology interventions, including popups for overuse and identification of digitally enhanced posts.

Concepts: Psychology, Health, Sociology, Review, Electronics, Health informatics, Digital, Digital media

0

Research demonstrates the safety and efficacy of community water fluoridation (CWF). Yet, the digitization of communication has triggered the spread of inaccurate information online. The purpose of this study was to analyze patterns of CWF information dissemination by a network of sources on the web.

Concepts: Information, World Wide Web, Communication, Media, Water fluoridation, Digital, Digital media

0

To describe the relationship between digital media exposure (DME) and parental perception of childhood flourishing, or overall positive well-being. It is hypothesized that there is an inverse association between parent-reported measures of childhood flourishing and increasing daily DME.

Concepts: Digital, Inverse relation, Digital media

0

The rise of the popular Internet has coincided with the increasing acceptance, even assimilation, of lesbians into mainstream society. The visible presence of lesbians in the tech industry and in digitally mediated spaces raises a set of questions about the relationship between queer identities and Internet technologies. This introduction to a special issue of Journal of Lesbian Studies explores some of these questions and provides an overview of the articles that follow.

Concepts: LGBT, Sociology, Technology, Society, Mass media, Digital, Mainstream, Digital media

0

Digital media provide increased opportunities for both marketing and social transmission of risky products and behavior. We briefly review what is known about adolescent exposure to favorable presentations of addictive substances, such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, as well as behaviors such as gambling, on social and other online media. Our understanding of these influences and whether they require greater regulation is still developing, and recommendations for future research to address these gaps in our understanding are described. Potential strategies to intervene in these environments to protect adolescents and young adults from the adverse effects of these products are described, as well as future challenges for developing interventions.

Concepts: Drug addiction, Addiction, Derivative, Motivation, Electronic media, Digital, Hedge, Digital media

0

Youth well-being, social connectedness, and personality traits, such as empathy and narcissism, are at the crux of concerns often raised about the impacts of digital life. Understanding known impacts, and research gaps, in these areas is an important first step toward supporting media use that contributes positively to youth’s happiness, life satisfaction, and prosocial attitudes and behaviors. By examining existing work addressing these issues across domains, we found that a complex interplay of individual factors, type of digital media engagement, and experiences in media contexts informs outcomes related to well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism. We argue that further research is needed to uncover how, where, when, and for whom digital media practices support positive well-being and social connectedness outcomes. Specifically, research needs to move beyond correlational studies to uncover causal connections between traits like narcissism and media use. Longitudinal studies are also needed to explore patterns of media use over time and related impacts. Further research is needed to explore how specific technologies can be designed to support positive well-being, social outcomes, and prosocial personality traits. Finally, research is needed regarding parenting, educational practices, and policies that support positive digital media use and related outcomes. Although existing research suggests that digital life has mixed potentials and effects for well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism, we provide recommendations for clinicians, policy makers, and educators in partnering with caregivers and youth to support media use that promotes positive outcomes in these areas.

Concepts: Psychology, Longitudinal study, Causality, Personality psychology, Sociology, Policy, Digital, Digital media