SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Differential GPS

144

Spoofing is becoming a serious threat to various Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications, especially for those that require high reliability and security such as power grid synchronization and applications related to first responders and aviation safety. Most current works on anti-spoofing focus on spoofing detection from the individual receiver side, which identifies spoofing when it is under an attack. This paper proposes a novel spoofing network monitoring (SNM) mechanism aiming to reveal the presence of spoofing within an area. Consisting of several receivers and one central processing component, it keeps detecting spoofing even when the network is not attacked. The mechanism is based on the different time difference of arrival (TDOA) properties between spoofing and authentic signals. Normally, TDOAs of spoofing signals from a common spoofer are identical while those of authentic signals from diverse directions are dispersed. The TDOA is measured as the differential pseudorange to carrier frequency ratio (DPF). In a spoofing case, the DPFs include those of both authentic and spoofing signals, among which the DPFs of authentic are dispersed while those of spoofing are almost overlapped. An algorithm is proposed to search for the DPFs that are within a pre-defined small range, and an alarm will be raised if several DPFs are found within such range. The proposed SNM methodology is validated by simulations and a partial field trial. Results show 99.99% detection and 0.01% false alarm probabilities are achieved. The SNM has the potential to be adopted in various applications such as (1) alerting dedicated users when spoofing is occurring, which could significantly shorten the receiver side spoofing cost; (2) in combination with GNSS performance monitoring systems, such as the Continuous Operating Reference System (CORS) and GNSS Availability, Accuracy, Reliability anD Integrity Assessment for Timing and Navigation (GAARDIAN) System, to provide more reliable monitoring services.

Concepts: Detection theory, Reliability, Navigation, Global Positioning System, Satellite navigation system, Global navigation satellite system, Satellite navigation systems, Differential GPS

0

This paper introduces a novel double-differential vector phase-locked loop (DD-VPLL) for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) that leverages carrier phase position solutions as well as base station measurements in the estimation of rover tracking loop parameters. The use of double differencing alleviates the need for estimating receiver clock dynamics and atmospheric delays; therefore, the navigation filter consists of the baseline dynamic states only. It is shown that using vector processing for carrier phase tracking leads to a significant enhancement in the receiver sensitivity compared to using the conventional scalar-based tracking loop (STL) and vector frequency locked loop (VFLL). The sensitivity improvement of 8 to 10 dB compared to STL, and 7 to 8 dB compared to VFLL, is obtained based on the test cases reported in the paper. Also, an increased probability of ambiguity resolution in the proposed method results in better availability for real time kinematic (RTK) applications.

Concepts: Navigation, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Satellite navigation systems, Differential GPS, Phase-locked loop, Carrier recovery

0

0

Cycle slip detection and repair is a prerequisite for high-precision global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based positioning. With the modernization and development of GNSS systems, more satellites are available to transmit triple-frequency signals, which allows the introduction of additional linear combinations and provides new opportunities for cycle slip detection and repair. In this paper, we present a new real-time cycle slip detection and repair method under high ionospheric activity for undifferenced Global Positioning System (GPS)/BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency observations collected with a single receiver. First, three optimal linearly independent geometry-free pseudorange minus phase combinations are selected to correctly and uniquely determine the cycle slips on the original triple-frequency carrier phase observations. Then, a second-order time-difference algorithm is employed for the pseudorange minus phase combinations to mitigate the impact of between-epoch ionospheric residuals on cycle slip detection, which is especially beneficial under high ionospheric activity. The performance of the approach is verified with static GPS/BDS triple-frequency observations that are collected with a 30 s sampling interval under active ionospheric conditions, and observations are manually inserted with simulated cycle slips. The results show that the method can correctly detect and repair cycle slips at a resolution as small as 1 cycle. Moreover, kinematic data collected from car-driven and airborne experiments are also processed to verify the performance of the method. The experimental results also demonstrate that the method is effective in processing kinematic data.

Concepts: Navigation, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system, Geodesy, Satellite navigation systems, Differential GPS

0

In Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, residual frequency estimation methods are traditionally applied in the synchronization block to reduce the transient time from acquisition to tracking, or they are used within the frequency estimator to improve its accuracy in open-loop architectures. There are several disadvantages in the current estimation methods, including sensitivity to noise and wide search space size. This paper proposes a new residual frequency estimation method depending on differential processing. Although the complexity of the proposed method is higher than the one of traditional methods, it can lead to more accurate estimates, without increasing the size of the search space.

Concepts: Mathematics, Estimator, Navigation, Experimental uncertainty analysis, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, Satellite navigation systems, Differential GPS

0

Dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) Real-time Kinematics (RTK) has been proven in the past few years to be a reliable and efficient technique to obtain high accuracy positioning. However, there are still challenges for GPS single-frequency RTK, such as low reliability and ambiguity resolution (AR) success rate, especially in kinematic environments. Recently, multi-Global Navigation Satellite System (multi-GNSS) has been applied to enhance the RTK performance in terms of availability and reliability of AR. In order to further enhance the multi-GNSS single-frequency RTK performance in terms of reliability, continuity and accuracy, a low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement unit (IMU) is adopted in this contribution. We tightly integrate the single-frequency GPS/BeiDou/GLONASS and MEMS-IMU through the extended Kalman filter (EKF), which directly fuses the ambiguity-fixed double-differenced (DD) carrier phase observables and IMU data. A field vehicular test was carried out to evaluate the impacts of the multi-GNSS and IMU on the AR and positioning performance in different system configurations. Test results indicate that the empirical success rate of single-epoch AR for the tightly-coupled single-frequency multi-GNSS RTK/INS integration is over 99% even at an elevation cut-off angle of 40°, and the corresponding position time series is much more stable in comparison with the GPS solution. Besides, GNSS outage simulations show that continuous positioning with certain accuracy is possible due to the INS bridging capability when GNSS positioning is not available.

Concepts: Navigation, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system, Geodesy, Differential GPS, LORAN

0

Along with the rapid development of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), satellite navigation signals have become more diversified, complex, and agile in adapting to increasing market demands. Various techniques have been developed for processing multiple navigation signals to achieve better performance in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and robustness. This paper focuses on a technique for processing two signals with separate but adjacent center frequencies, such as B1I and B1C signals in the BeiDou global system. The two signals may differ in modulation scheme, power, and initial phase relation and can be processed independently by user receivers; however, the propagation delays of the two signals from a satellite are nearly identical as they are modulated on adjacent frequencies, share the same reference clock, and undergo nearly identical propagation paths to the receiver, resulting in strong coherence between the two signals. Joint processing of these signals can achieve optimal measurement performance due to the increased Gabor bandwidth and power. In this paper, we propose a universal scheme of asymmetric dual-band tracking (ASYM-DBT) to take advantage of the strong coherence, the increased Gabor bandwidth, and power of the two signals in achieving much-reduced thermal noise and more accurate ranging results when compared with the traditional single-band algorithm.

Concepts: Phase, Navigation, Global Positioning System, Satellite navigation system, Global navigation satellite system, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Satellite navigation systems, Differential GPS

0

Single-Frequency Single-Epoch (SFSE) high-precision positioning has always been the hot spot of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP) is a well-known scalar measure for success rate of ambiguity resolution. Traditional ADOP expression is complicated, thus the SFSE extended ADOP (E-ADOP), with the newly defined Summation-Multiplication Ratio of Weight (SMRW) and two theorems for short baseline, was developed. This simplifies the ADOP expression; gives a clearer insight into the influences of SMRW and number of satellites on E-ADOP; and makes theoretical analysis of E-ADOP more convenient than that of ADOP, and through that the E-ADOP value can be predicted more accurately than through the ADOP expression for ADOP value. E-ADOP reveals that number of satellites and SMRW or high-elevation satellite are important for ADOP and, through E-ADOP, we studied which factor is dominant to control ADOP in different conditions and make ADOP different between BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and BDS/GPS. Based on experimental results of SFSE positioning with different baselines, some conclusions are made: (1) ADOP decreases when new satellites are added mainly because the number of satellites becomes larger; (2) when the number of satellites is constant, ADOP is mainly affected by SMRW; (3) in contrast to systems where the satellites with low-elevation are the majority or where low- and high-elevation satellites are equally distributed, in systems where the high-elevation satellites are the majority, the SMRW mainly makes ADOP smaller, even if there are fewer satellites than in the two previous cases, and the difference in numbers of satellites can be expanded as the proportion of high-elevation satellites becomes larger; and (4) ADOP of BDS is smaller than ADOP of GPS mainly because of its SMRW.

Concepts: Navigation, Global Positioning System, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Positioning system, Geodesy, Satellite navigation systems, Differential GPS

0

In this paper, an anti-jamming method, which turns the single objective optimization problem into a multi-objective optimization problem by utilizing 2-norm, is proposed. The proposed jamming suppression method can reduce the wide nulls and wrong nulls problems, which are generated by the common adaptive nulling methods. Therefore a better signal-noise-ratio (SNR) can be achieved, especially when the jammers are close to satellite signals. It can also improve the robustness of the algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation and practical outdoor experiments with the GPS L1 band C/A signals. The experimental results show that with the dedicated method, the nulls targeting at the corresponding jammers become narrower and the wrong nulls can be eliminated.

Concepts: Navigation, Global Positioning System, Automotive navigation system, Satellite navigation system, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Geodesy, Differential GPS

0

The single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) technique has attracted increasing attention due to its high accuracy and low cost. However, a very long convergence time, normally a few hours, is required in order to achieve a positioning accuracy level of a few centimeters. In this study, an approach is proposed to accelerate the single-frequency PPP convergence by combining quad-constellation global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and global ionospheric map (GIM) data. In this proposed approach, the GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and Galileo observations are directly used in an uncombined observation model and as a result the ionospheric and hardware delay (IHD) can be estimated together as a single unknown parameter. The IHD values acquired from the GIM product and the multi-GNSS differential code bias (DCB) product are then utilized as pseudo-observables of the IHD parameter in the observation model. A time varying weight scheme has also been proposed for the pseudo-observables to gradually decrease its contribution to the position solutions during the convergence period. To evaluate the proposed approach, datasets from twelve Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations on seven consecutive days are processed and analyzed. The numerical results indicate that the single-frequency PPP with quad-constellation GNSS and GIM data are able to reduce the convergence time by 56%, 47%, 41% in the east, north, and up directions compared to the GPS-only single-frequency PPP.

Concepts: Navigation, Global Positioning System, Convergence, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Dominated convergence theorem, Satellite navigation systems, Differential GPS