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Concept: Differences


We document and interpret differences in life evaluation and in hedonic experience between those who live with children and those who do not; most previous literature has concluded that those with children have worse lives. For a sample of 1.8 million Americans of all ages, and without controls for other circumstances, we find little difference in subjective wellbeing between people with and without children. Among those most likely to be parents, life evaluation and all hedonic experiences except stress are markedly better among those living with a child. However, within this group, people who live with children are more likely to be married, richer, better educated, more religious, and healthier, all of which have well-documented positive associations with evaluative and hedonic wellbeing. With statistical controls for these background factors, the presence of a child has a small negative association with life evaluation, although it is associated with more of both positive and negative hedonics. These patterns are replicated in the English-speaking countries of the world, but not in other regions. We argue that the causal effect of children on parental wellbeing, which is the target for most of the literature, is not well defined. Instead, we interpret our rich-country results within a theory of children and wellbeing in which adults sort into parenthood according to their preferences. In poor, high-fertility countries, we find evidence that at least some people have children even when it diminishes their personal wellbeing.

Concepts: Causality, Evaluation, Parent, Evaluation methods, Addition, Child, Differences, The Target


Social factors play a critical role in a panoply of health processes, including, as recently demonstrated, olfaction. Here, we investigated sex-dependent differences in the relationship between social lives and ability to identify odors in a large sample of nationally representative older US adults (n = 3005, National Social Life and Aging Project (NSHAP)). Social life was measured by the number of friends and close relatives as well as frequency of socializing. We here confirm the association between social lives and olfactory function and extend the notion by showing specifically that olfactory identification ability is modulated by sex in older adults. The connection between olfactory performance and social lives could reflect social modulation of aging as has been reported for health in general. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms underlying this association and sex difference.

Concepts: Biology, Sociology, Differences, Olfaction, Odor, Olfactory fatigue, Electronic nose, Olfactometer


Alcohol hangover is a growing research area, but differences across the life span have not been assessed. Here, we test the hypothesis that the severity of hangovers depends on age.

Concepts: Alcoholism, Differences, Alcohol abuse, Alcoholic beverage, Vodka, Blood alcohol content, Drinking culture, Hangover


BACKGROUND: /st>Neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) are the most common cause of intraoperative anaphylaxis in Western Australia. Differences in the rates of anaphylaxis between individual agents have been surmised in the past, but not proven, and are an important consideration if agents are otherwise equivalent. METHODS: /st>We estimated a rate of anaphylaxis to NMBDs by analysing cases of NMBD anaphylaxis referred to the only specialized diagnostic centre in Western Australia over a 10 yr period. Exposure was approximated by analysing a 5 yr period of NMBD ampoule sales data. Agents were also ranked according to the prevalence of cross-reactivity in patients with previous NMBD anaphylaxis. RESULTS: /st>Rocuronium was responsible for 56% of cases of NMBD anaphylaxis, succinylcholine 21%, and vecuronium 11%. There was no difference in the severity of reactions for different NMBDs. Rocuronium had a higher rate of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis compared with vecuronium (8.0 vs 2.8 per 100 000 exposures; P=0.0013). The prevalence of cross-reactivity after NMBD anaphylaxis suggested that succinylcholine also has a high risk of triggering anaphylaxis. Cisatracurium had the lowest prevalence of cross-reactivity in patients with known anaphylaxis to rocuronium or vecuronium. CONCLUSIONS: /st>Rocuronium has a higher rate of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis compared with vecuronium, a result that is statistically significant and clinically important. Cisatracurium had the lowest rate of cross-reactivity in patients who had previously suffered anaphylaxis to rocuronium or vecuronium.

Concepts: Statistics, Statistical significance, Incidence, Difference, Differences, Muscle relaxants, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Cisatracurium


New signal processing techniques have enabled the use of the vectorcardiogram (VCG) for the detection of cardiac ischemia. Thus, we studied this signal during ventricular depolarization in 80 ischemic patients, before undergoing angioplasty, and 52 healthy subjects with the objective of evaluating the vectorcardiographic difference between both groups so leading to their subsequent classification. For that matter, seven QRS-loop parameters were analyzed, i.e.: (a) Maximum Vector Magnitude; (b) Volume; © Planar Area; (d) Maximum Distance between Centroid and Loop; (e) Angle between XY and Optimum Plane; (f) Perimeter and, (g) Area-Perimeter Ratio. For comparison, the conventional ST-Vector Magnitude (ST(VM)) was also calculated. Results indicate that several vectorcardiographic parameters show significant differences between healthy and ischemic subjects. The identification of ischemic patients via discriminant analysis using ST(VM) produced 73.2% Sensitivity (Sens) and 73.9% Specificity (Spec). In our study, the QRS-loop parameter with the best global performance was Volume, which achieved Sens=64.5% and Spec=74.6%. However, when all QRS-loop parameters and ST(VM) were combined, we obtained Sens=88.5% and Spec=92.1%. In conclusion, QRS loop parameters can be accepted as a complement to conventional ST(VM) analysis in the identification of ischemic patients.

Concepts: Sensitivity and specificity, Heart disease, Signal processing, Difference, Differences, Ischemia, C, Parameter


This study investigated if the quantity of high-speed running (movements >15 km.h - 1) completed in the first 15 min of competitive football matches differed from that completed in the corresponding 15 min of the second half. 20 semi-professional soccer players (age 21.2±3.6 years, body mass 76.4±3.8 kg, height 1.89±0.05 m) participated in the study. 50 competitive soccer matches and 192 data files were analysed (4±2 files per match) using Global Positioning Satellite technology. Data were analysed using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations. No differences were found between the first 15 min of each half for the distance completed at high-speed (>15 km.h - 1) or sprinting (>21 km.h - 1), or in the number of sprints undertaken (p>0.05). However, total distance covered was shorter (1st half vs. 2nd half: 1 746±220 vs. 1 644±224 m; p<0.001) and mean speed lower (1st half vs. 2nd half: 7.0±0.9 vs. 6.6±0.9 km.h - 1; p<0.001) in the first 15 min of the second half compared to the first. The correlations between the duration of the half-time interval and the difference in the high-speed running or sprinting between first and second halves (0-15 min) were very small (r=0.08 [p=0.25] and r=0.04 [p=0.61] respectively). Therefore, this study did not find any difference between the amount of high-speed running and sprinting completed by semi-professional soccer players when the first 15 min of the first and second half of competitive matches were compared The maintenance of high-speed running and sprinting, as total distance and mean speed declined, may be a function of the pacing strategies adopted by players in competitive matches.

Concepts: Time, Differences, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Analysis of variance, Running, Global Positioning System, Sprint, Files


Palmatier and Rovner (2014) discussed the possible interplay of two major methods of polygraph examination, the Comparison Question Test (CQT) and the Concealed Information Test (CIT). In this comment, we argue that such an attempt overlooks fundamental differences between the two methods. Specifically, both methods differ in their criterion variables; detecting deception versus detecting memory traces. This difference can lead to a different evaluation concerning their outcomes within a forensic context. However, Palmatier and Rovner’s (2014) attempt may blur the distinction between the two methods. Furthermore, at least for the present, it is difficult to give a unified explanation of physiological responses in the CQT and CIT based on the preliminary process theory of the orienting response. In sum, Palmatier and Rovner’s (2014) paper may add further confusion to the research and practice of polygraph testing. Additionally, their paper has no relevance to the current practice of Japanese polygraph examination, because Japanese law enforcement uses only the CIT for memory detection in real-life criminal investigations.

Concepts: Present, Physiology, Difference, Differences, Japan, Police, Government of Japan, Polygraph


In a previous paper [1], we reported that in comparison to normal skin, cosmetic dry skin characteristically has a thicker stratum corneum (SC) with weaker barrier quality. Our goal here was to obtain a more complete picture of the difference between normal and cosmetic dry skin, by further analyzing the data collected from the same clinical study to address two additional aspects of skin: the amount and depth profile of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) and the cohesivity of the SC.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Difference, Differences, Negative and non-negative numbers, Normal subgroup, Stratum corneum


Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Life, Personality psychology, Sociology, Difference, Differences, Motivation, Big Five personality traits, Branches of psychology


There is currently a lack of in-situ environmental data for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed products and for the development and verification of models. Crowdsourcing is increasingly being seen as one potentially powerful way of increasing the supply of in-situ data but there are a number of concerns over the subsequent use of the data, in particular over data quality. This paper examined crowdsourced data from the Geo-Wiki crowdsourcing tool for land cover validation to determine whether there were significant differences in quality between the answers provided by experts and non-experts in the domain of remote sensing and therefore the extent to which crowdsourced data describing human impact and land cover can be used in further scientific research. The results showed that there was little difference between experts and non-experts in identifying human impact although results varied by land cover while experts were better than non-experts in identifying the land cover type. This suggests the need to create training materials with more examples in those areas where difficulties in identification were encountered, and to offer some method for contributors to reflect on the information they contribute, perhaps by feeding back the evaluations of their contributed data or by making additional training materials available. Accuracies were also found to be higher when the volunteers were more consistent in their responses at a given location and when they indicated higher confidence, which suggests that these additional pieces of information could be used in the development of robust measures of quality in the future.

Concepts: 2002 albums, Difference, Differences, Identification, Remote sensing, Verification and validation, Crowdsourcing