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Concept: Dietary mineral


Certain population sub-groups in the United States are vulnerable to micronutrient malnutrition. Nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) describing the biochemical status of vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, folate, and anemia, were aggregated to determine the overall risk of multiple concurrent deficiencies in U.S. children and adults (n = 15,030) aged >9 years. The prevalence of deficiency risk according to socio-demographic, life-stage, dietary supplement use, and dietary adequacy categories was investigated. Thirty-one percent of the U.S. population was at risk of at least one vitamin deficiency or anemia, with 23%, 6.3%, and 1.7% of the U.S. population at risk of deficiency in 1, 2, or 3-5 vitamins or anemia, respectively. A significantly higher deficiency risk was seen in women (37%), non-Hispanic blacks (55%), individuals from low income households (40%), or without a high school diploma (42%), and underweight (42%) or obese individuals (39%). A deficiency risk was most common in women 19-50 years (41%), and pregnant or breastfeeding women (47%). Dietary supplement non-users had the highest risk of any deficiency (40%), compared to users of full-spectrum multivitamin-multimineral supplements (14%) and other dietary supplement users (28%). Individuals consuming an adequate diet based on the Estimated Average Requirement had a lower risk of any deficiency (16%) than those with an inadequate diet (57%). Nearly one-third of the U.S. population is at risk of deficiency in at least one vitamin, or has anemia.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Vitamin, Essential nutrient, Dietary supplement, Dietary mineral, Folic acid, Vitamin B12


Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Obesity, Fat, Nutrient, Vitamin, Dietary mineral, Micronutrient


In metabolic bone diseases, the alterations in fibrillar level bone-material quality affecting macroscopic mechanical competence are not well-understood quantitatively. Here, we quantify the fibrillar level deformation in cantilever bending in a mouse model for hereditary rickets (Hpr). Microfocus in-situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combined with cantilever bending was used to resolve nanoscale fibril strain in tensile- and compressive tissue regions separately, with quantitative backscattered scanning electron microscopy used to measure microscale mineralization. Tissue-level flexural moduli for Hpr mice were significantly (p<0.01) smaller compared to wild-type (~5 to 10-fold reduction). At the fibrillar level, the fibril moduli within the tensile and compressive zones were significantly (p<0.05) lower by ~3- to 5-fold in Hpr mice compared to wild-type mice. Hpr mice have a lower mineral content (24.2±2.1Cawt.% versus 27.4±3.3Ca wt.%) and its distribution was more heterogeneous compared to wild-type animals. However, the average effective fibril modulus did not differ significantly (p>0.05) over ages (4, 7 and 10weeks) between tensile and compressive zones. Our results indicate that incompletely mineralized fibrils in Hpr mice have greater deformability and lower moduli in both compression and tension, and those compressive and tensile zones have similar moduli at the fibrillar level.

Concepts: Electron, Dietary mineral, Mineral, X-ray crystallography, Scanning electron microscope, Young's modulus, X-rays, Small-angle X-ray scattering


The aim of this study was to assess nutritional supplement use among fitness club participants in Tehran, Iran. A cross sectional study was conducted in 24 fitness clubs throughout the city of Tehran, Iran. A total of 1625 fitness club participants were recruited to participate in this study. They were asked to complete a self-administered pre-tested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were performed to determine the characteristics of participants, reasons for supplement use, sources of information and also the influential advisors regarding nutritional supplement use. A high prevalence rate of nutritional supplement use (66.7%) was reported. Overall, multivitamin-mineral (43.8%) and iron tablets (30.5%) were the common nutritional supplements used and only a small number of participants used illegal substances (0.5%). Younger participants were more likely to use ergogenic aids, whereas, older participants were more likely to use vitamin D. Males were more likely than females to use creatine and amino acids, whereas, iron tablets and mint water were more common among females. Also, males were more likely to use nutritional supplements for increasing energy, whereas, females were more likely to use nutritional supplements for nutritional deficiencies. In conclusion, a high prevalence rate of nutritional supplement use was seen among participants.

Concepts: Amino acid, Vitamin, Dietary supplement, Dietary mineral, Iran, Health club, Dietary supplements, Tehran


Mineral phases and their content were determined in attic dust samples collected from 27 houses in the Tikveš Valley, Republic of Macedonia. By using quantitative X-ray diffraction, the principal mineral phases were determined to be the serpentinite group (chrysotile, lizardite) and amphibole group of minerals (ribecite, tremolite, actinolite) present in the attic dust samples from this region which are not common constituents of urban dust. Strong correlations existed between these mineral phases in the dust and those in ores processed at a ferronickel smelter plant situated in this region. Spatial distributions of specific mineral phases were made and were consistent with wind directions and predicted deposition (60-70 %) of dust emitted from the metallurgical plant.

Concepts: Crystallography, Dietary mineral, Mineral, Lead, Asbestos, Silicate minerals, Amphibole, Ore


This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

Concepts: Nutrition, Dietary mineral, Mineral, Mushroom, Edible mushroom, Agaricales, Lentinula, Shiitake


Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary mineral and Radix puerariae (RP) (the dried root of Pueraria lobata Willd.) is a botanical supplement widely used as a nutraceutical. Food enriched with Se provides a feasible and economic approach for production of organic Se compounds. However, little is known about Se-enriched RP and the structure of Se-containing polysaccharides and proteins derived from Se-enriched RP.

Concepts: Protein, Nutrition, Dietary supplement, Dietary mineral, Selenium, Kudzu, Phaseoleae, Pueraria


To investigate the cytotoxicity of BioAggregate and iRoot BP Plus root canal sealer (iRoot BP Plus) to human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) and their effect on proliferation and mineralization of hDPCs and to compare their performance with that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).

Concepts: Dietary mineral, Mineral, Teeth, Endodontic therapy, Dentin, Pulp


Two experiments were conducted on broiler chickens to compare the effect of a new organic Se source, 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA; SO), with two practical Se additives, sodium selenite (SS) and Se yeast (SY). The relative bioavailability of the different Se sources was compared on muscle (pectoralis major) total Se, selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenocysteine (SeCys) concentrations and apparent digestibility of total Se (ADSe). In the first experiment, from day (d) 0 to d21, Se sources were tested at different supplied levels and compared with an unsupplemented diet (NC). No significant effects were observed on growth performance during the experimental period. However, the different Se sources and levels improved muscle Se concentration compared with the NC, with a significant source effect in the following order: SS < SY < SO (P< 0·05). Seleno-amino acids speciation results for NC, SY and SO at 0·3 mg Se/kg feed indicated that muscle Se was only present as SeMet or SeCys, showing a full conversion of Se by the bird. The second experiment (d0-d24) compared SS, SY or SO at 0·3 mg Se/kg feed. The ADSe measurements carried out between d20 and d23 were 24, 46 and 49 % for SS, SY and SO, respectively, with significant differences between the organic and mineral Se sources (P< 0·05). These results confirmed the higher bioavailability of organic Se sources compared with the mineral source and demonstrated a significantly better efficiency of HMSeBA compared with SY for muscle Se enrichment.

Concepts: Protein, Chemistry, Dietary mineral, Experiment, Trigraph, Gh, Selenium, Selenomethionine


Significance: Wound-healing complications are a clinical problem with a considerable socioeconomic burden. Since several nutrients play a physiological role in wound healing, supplementation of these nutrients may improve wound healing. Recent Advances: Oral nutritional supplements and enteral formulas providing arginine, glutamine, and micronutrients such as ascorbic acid and zinc should improve the healing of pressure ulcers (PU) and the healing of surgical, traumatic, and burned wounds. Is their efficacy proved from clinical intervention trials? Critical Issues: Formulas that are rich in energy, protein, arginine, vitamin C, and zinc can improve PU healing, whereas their efficacy for PU prevention is less clear. High-dose supplementation of vitamin C, zinc, and pantothenic acid may improve the healing of surgical wounds in healthy subjects. Arginine lowers the risk of fistulas in patients undergoing elective surgery due to gastrointestinal cancer. However, formulations also enriched with n-3-fatty acids and ribonucleic acids lower the risk of several wound complications, thus being more effective than isolated arginine. Glutamine and antioxidant micronutrients (vitamin C and E, zinc, selenium, and copper) can improve the healing of surgical, traumatic, and burned wounds. Future Directions: Considerable evidence suggests that formulations, indicated especially for critically ill patients, support the healing of PU and the healing of surgical and burned wounds. However, their optimal composition with regard to the dose of individual components has to be determined in future studies. Further well-designed trials should investigate the impact of certain nutrients for the prevention of PU and for the healing of surgical wounds in healthy subjects.

Concepts: Acid, Nutrition, Antioxidant, Nutrient, Vitamin, Dietary mineral, Vitamin C, Ascorbic acid