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Concept: Diclofenac


Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (e.g., rofecoxib [Vioxx]) increase the risk of heart attack and stroke and should be avoided in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. Rates of cardiovascular disease are high and rising in many low- and middle-income countries. We studied the extent to which evidence on cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs has translated into guidance and sales in 15 countries.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Cyclooxygenase, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Diclofenac, Celecoxib, Etoricoxib


Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an attractive target for molecular imaging because it is an inducible enzyme that is expressed in response to inflammatory and proliferative stimuli. Recently, we reported that conjugation of indomethacin with carboxy-X-rhodamine dyes results in the formation of effective, targeted, optical imaging agents able to detect COX-2 in inflammatory tissues and pre-malignant and malignant tumors (Uddin et al. Cancer Res. 2010, 70, 3618-3627). The present paper summarizes the details of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies performed for lead optimization of these dyes. A wide range of fluorescent conjugates were designed and synthesized, and each of them was tested for their ability to selectively inhibit COX-2 as the purified protein and in human cancer cells. The SAR study revealed that indomethacin conjugates are the best COX-2-targeted agents compared to the other carboxylic acid-containing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or COX-2-selective inhibitors (COXIBs). An n-butyldiamide linker is optimal for tethering bulky fluorescent functionalities onto the NSAID or COXIB cores. The activity of conjugates also depends on the size, shape, and electronic properties of the organic fluorophores. These reagents are taken up by COX-2-expressing cells in culture, and the uptake is blocked by pretreatment with a COX inhibitor. In in vivo settings, these reagents become highly enriched in COX-2-expressing tumors compared to surrounding normal tissue, and they accumulate selectively in COX-2-expressing tumors as compared with COX-2-negative tumors implanted in the same mice. Thus, COX-2-targeted fluorescent inhibitors are useful for preclinical and clinical detection of lesions containing elevated levels of COX-2.

Concepts: Cancer, Cyclooxygenase, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Celecoxib


Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening of the average risk population is only indicated according to age. We aim to elaborate a model to stratify the risk of CRC by incorporating environmental data and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The MCC-Spain case-control study included 1336 CRC cases and 2744 controls. Subjects were interviewed on lifestyle factors, family and medical history. Twenty-one CRC susceptibility SNPs were genotyped. The environmental risk model, which included alcohol consumption, obesity, physical activity, red meat and vegetable consumption, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, contributed to CRC with an average per factor OR of 1.36 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.45). Family history of CRC contributed an OR of 2.25 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.72), and each additional SNP contributed an OR of 1.07 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.10). The risk of subjects with more than 25 risk alleles (5(th) quintile) was 82% higher (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.98) than subjects with less than 19 alleles (1(st) quintile). This risk model, with an AUROC curve of 0.63 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.66), could be useful to stratify individuals. Environmental factors had more weight than the genetic score, which should be considered to encourage patients to achieve a healthier lifestyle.

Concepts: Genetics, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac


Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is a common condition resulting from a bout of vigorous exercise, particularly if the individual is unaccustomed to performance of the given movement. Symptoms of EIMD include delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and a loss of physical function. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are routinely prescribed post-exercise to alleviate these symptoms and restore normal physical function. Of potential concern for those who use NSAIDs to treat EIMD is the possibility that they may impair the adaptive response to exercise. Specifically, there is emerging evidence that the action of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes, and COX-2 in particular, are important and even necessary to achieve maximal skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to functional overload. Given that NSAIDs exert their actions by blocking COX and thus suppressing prostaglandin production, a theoretical rationale exists whereby these drugs may have detrimental effects on muscle regeneration and supercompensation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to extensively review the literature and evaluate the effects of NSAIDs on muscle growth and development. Based on current evidence, there is little reason to believe that the occasional use of NSAIDs will negatively affect muscle growth, although the efficacy for their use in alleviating inflammatory symptoms remains questionable. Evidence on the hypertrophic effects of the chronic use of NSAIDs is less clear. In those who are untrained, it does not appear that regular NSAID use will impede growth in the short term, and at least one study indicates that it may in fact have a positive impact. Given their reported impairment of satellite cell activity, however, longer-term NSAID use may well be detrimental, particularly in those who possess greater growth potential.

Concepts: Cyclooxygenase, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Celecoxib, Muscle hypertrophy


Aspirin, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID), and acetaminophen are commonly used. Frequent use of analgesics has been associated with a higher risk of hearing loss. However, the association between duration of analgesic use and the risk of hearing loss is unclear. We investigated the relationship between duration of analgesic use and self-reported hearing loss among 55,850 women in the Nurses' Health Study. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. During 873,376 person-years of follow-up (1990-2012), longer durations of NSAID use (for >6 years of use compared with <1 year, multivariable-adjusted relative risk = 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.15; P for trend < 0.001) and acetaminophen use (for >6 years of use compared with <1 year, multivariable-adjusted relative risk = 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.14; P for trend < 0.001) were associated with higher risks of hearing loss. Duration of aspirin use was not associated with hearing loss (for >6 years of use compared with <1 year, multivariable-adjusted relative risk = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.05; P for trend = 0.35). In this cohort of women, longer durations of NSAID and acetaminophen use were associated with slightly higher risks of hearing loss, but duration of aspirin use was not. Considering the high prevalence of analgesic use, this may be an important modifiable contributor to hearing loss.

Concepts: Cyclooxygenase, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Aspirin, Analgesic, Analgesics


In 2012, an Indian parliamentary committee reported that manufacturing licenses for large numbers of fixed dose combination (FDC) drugs had been issued by state authorities without prior approval of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) in violation of rules, and considered that some ambiguity until 1 May 2002 about states' powers might have contributed. To our knowledge, no systematic enquiry has been undertaken to determine if evidence existed to support these findings. We investigated CDSCO approvals for and availability of oral FDC drugs in four therapeutic areas: analgesia (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), diabetes (metformin), depression/anxiety (anti-depressants/benzodiazepines), and psychosis (anti-psychotics).

Concepts: Opioid, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Analgesic, Celecoxib


Introduction: The increased thrombotic cardiovascular (CV) risk in trials of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors versus placebo, and the apparent similar risk with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may be related to their potential to elevate blood pressure (BP). Aims: We evaluated the relationship between baseline BP and change in BP on CV events (CVEs) in patients receiving NSAIDs or COX-2 inhibitors in the prospective randomized, double-blind, Multinational Etoricoxib and Diclofenac Arthritis Long-term Program (N = 34,701) comparing etoricoxib 60 or 90 mg or diclofenac 150 mg daily for a mean duration of 18 months. The main outcome measure was confirmed thrombotic CVEs. The Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration endpoint, all-cause mortality, CV/congestive heart failure (CHF) mortality, and CHF incidence were similarly evaluated. Results: We found that baseline systolic BP (SBP) was associated with significantly higher risk of all events (P < 0.001). Baseline diastolic BP (DBP) was inversely and significantly associated with risk of all events (P < 0.001 to P= 0.016) except CV/CHF mortality (P= 0.054). There was no significant differential effect between etoricoxib and diclofenac in relation to CVEs, except for confirmed CHF, for which the risk was significantly higher with etoricoxib (P= 0.019). Only CHF risk (P= 0.020 for both SBP and DBP change), but not thrombotic endpoints, was significantly associated with change in BP from months 0 to 4. These findings were not meaningfully altered after covariate adjustment for baseline CV risk. Conclusions: Baseline BP, but not change in BP, was significantly associated with risk of thrombotic CVEs through 18 months. The CV risk of COX-2s and NSAIDs did not appear to be related to the BP-elevating effects of these agents, although such analyses, i.e., from randomized controlled trials, are unable to definitively exclude such a relationship.

Concepts: Hypertension, Blood pressure, Cyclooxygenase, Osteoarthritis, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Diclofenac, Analgesic, Etoricoxib


PURPOSE: Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the most important exogenous risk factor for cutaneous malignancies. It is possible that phototoxic drugs promote the development of cutaneous melanoma (CM) by intensifying the effect of ultraviolet light on the skin. We investigated the association between the use of common systemic phototoxic drugs and development of CM. METHODS: This study was a case-control study in a Dutch population-based cohort. The drug dispensing data was obtained from PHARMO, a Dutch drug dispensing and hospital admissions registry, and linked to PALGA, the nationwide pathology network of the Netherlands. The cases were patients diagnosed with pathologically confirmed primary CM between 1991 and 2004. Controls were sampled from the PHARMO population. Exposure to systemic phototoxic drugs was measured and included antimicrobial agents, diuretics, antipsychotic drugs, antidiabetic drugs, cardiac drugs, antimalarials and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to study the association between exposure to phototoxic drugs and CM. RESULTS: The study population included 1,318 cases and 6,786 controls. Any phototoxic drug during the study period was dispensed for 46 % of the cases and 43 % of the controls (p = 0.012). The use of quinolones [odds ratio (OR) 1.33, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.76] and propionic acid derivative NSAIDs (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.14-1.54) had a positive association with CM. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the use of phototoxic drugs is associated with an increased risk of developing CM. Even a short-term use of phototoxic quinolones and propionic acid derivative NSAIDs may increase the risk for CM. Patient education to promote sun-protective behaviour is essential to avoid immediate adverse effects and possible long-term effects of phototoxic drugs.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac


Mefenamic acid, (MFA), a carboxylic acid-containing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is metabolized into the chemically-reactive conjugates MFA-1-O-acyl-glucuronide (MFA-1-O-G) and MFA-S-acyl-CoA (MFA-CoA), which are both implicated in the formation of MFA-S-acyl-glutathione (MFA-GSH) conjugates, protein-adduct formation and thus the potential toxicity of the drug. However, current studies suggest that an additional acyl-linked metabolite may be implicated in the formation of MFA-GSH. In the present study, we investigated the ability of MFA to become bioactivated into the acyl-linked metabolite, mefenamyl-adenylate (MFA-AMP). In vitro incubations in rat hepatocytes with MFA (100 µM), followed by LC-MS/MS analyses of extracts, led to the detection of MFA-AMP. In these incubations, the initial rate of MFA-AMP formation was rapid, leveling off at a maximum concentration of 90.1 nM (20 sec), while MFA-GSH formation increased linearly, reaching a concentration of 1.7 µM after 60 min incubation. In comparison, MFA-CoA was undetectable in incubation extracts until the 4 min time point, achieving a concentration of 45.6 nM at the 60 min time point, MFA-1-O-G formation was linear attaining a concentration of 42.2 µM after 60 min incubation. In vitro incubation in buffer with the model nucleophile glutathione (GSH) under physiological conditions showed MFA-AMP to be reactive towards GSH, but 11-fold less reactive than MFA-CoA, while MFA-1-O-G exhibited little reactivity. However, in the presence of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), MFA-AMP mediated formation of MFA-GSH increased 6-fold, while MFA-CoA mediated formation of MFA-GSH only increased 1.4-fold. Collectively, in addition to the MFA-1-O-G, these results demonstrate that mefenamic acid does become bioactivated by acyl-CoA synthetase enzyme(s) in vitro in rat hepatocytes into the reactive transacylating derivatives MFA-AMP and MFA-CoA, both of which contribute to the transacylation of GSH and may be involved in the formation of protein adducts and potentially elicit an idiosyncratic toxicity.

Concepts: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac


The aim of this study was to prepare diclofenac/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and diclofenac-loaded nanoparticles/HPMC films as potential systems for ocular delivery.

Concepts: Diclofenac