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Concept: Diabetic diet

363

The predominant etiology for erectile dysfunction (ED) is vascular, but limited data are available on the role of diet. A higher intake of several flavonoids reduces diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, but no studies have examined associations between flavonoids and erectile function.

Concepts: Medicine, Nutrition, Death, The Canon of Medicine, Obesity, Cardiovascular disease, Erectile dysfunction, Diabetic diet

153

Diet plays a crucial role for maintaining normal growth and development while optimizing glycemic control in children with diabetes. Dietary restrictions, in a diabetic child’s diet may lead to micronutrient deficiencies.

Concepts: Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Obesity, Diabetes, Insulin resistance, Diabetic diet

138

Vegetarian diets are inversely associated with diabetes in Westerners but their impact on Asians-whose pathophysiology differ from Westerners-is unknown. We aim to investigate the association between a vegetarian diet, change in dietary patterns and diabetes risk in a Taiwanese Buddhist population.

Concepts: Nutrition, Diabetic diet, Taiwan, Buddhism, Diets, Vegetarianism, Jainism, Hinduism

87

In children the relationship between a healthy diet and psychosocial well-being has not been fully explored and the existing evidence is inconsistent. This study investigates the chronology of the association between children’s adherence to healthy dietary guidelines and their well-being, with special attention to the influence of weight status on the association.

Concepts: Health, Human, Nutrition, The Association, Diet, Diabetic diet, Sunshine pop, 1970s music groups

36

Qualitative aspects of diet influence eating behavior, but the physiologic mechanisms for these calorie-independent effects remain speculative.

Concepts: Psychology, Nutrition, Diet, Dieting, Glycemic index, Diabetic diet, Glycemic load, Carnivore

35

(1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations.

Concepts: Protein, Health, Nutrition, Randomized controlled trial, Fat, Diabetic diet, Diets, Raw foodism

34

Women who developed gestational diabetes mellitus represent a high-risk population for hypertension later in life. The role of diet in the progression of hypertension among this susceptible population is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3818 women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus in the Nurses' Health Study II as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women’s Health Study. These women were followed-up from 1989 to 2011. Incident hypertension was identified through self-administered questionnaires that were validated previously by medical record review. Adherence scores for the alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, the alternative Mediterranean diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension were computed for each participant. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary scores and hypertension while adjusting for major risk factors for hypertension. We documented 1069 incident hypertension cases during a median of 18.5 years of follow-up. After adjustment for major risk factors for hypertension, including body mass index, alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, alternative Mediterranean diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores were significantly inversely associated with the risk of hypertension; hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval comparing the extreme quartiles (highest versus lowest) were 0.76 (0.61-0.94;Pfor linear trend =0.03) for AHEI score, 0.72 (0.58-0.90;Pfor trend =0.01) for Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension score, and 0.70 (0.56-0.88;Pfor trend =0.002) for alternative Mediterranean diet score. Adherence to a healthful dietary pattern was related to a lower subsequent risk of developing hypertension among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Concepts: Health, Epidemiology, Nutrition, Proportional hazards models, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Gestational diabetes, Diabetic diet

29

We found marked improvement of glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes given advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a diabetes diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meal times and participants' other experiences of the two diets from the same study.

Concepts: Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Diabetes, Insulin resistance, Diabetic diet, Diets

27

This study used a market-basket approach to examine the availability and cost of a standard food shopping list (R-TFP) vs a healthier food shopping list (H-TFP) in the grocery stores used by a sample of 23 families of young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Concepts: Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Obesity, Diabetes, Diabetic diet

26

Although a role of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in age-related cataract development is plausible, a few studies, all conducted in USA or Australia, provided results on this issue. The aim of the present study was to provide new original data from a Mediterranean population.

Concepts: Nutrition, Cultural studies, Carbohydrate, Glycemic index, Diabetic diet, Mediterranean climate, Glycemic load, Insulin index