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Concept: Development

179

The governments and citizens of the developed nations are increasingly called upon to contribute financially to health initiatives outside their borders. Although international development assistance for health has grown rapidly over the last two decades, austerity measures related to the 2008 and 2011 global financial crises may impact negatively on aid expenditures. The competition between national priorities and foreign aid commitments raises important ethical questions for donor nations. This paper aims to foster individual reflection and public debate on donor responsibilities for global health.

Concepts: Development, Crisis theory, Aid, International relations, International Monetary Fund, Crisis, Development aid, Development Assistance Committee

168

BACKGROUND: Understanding implementation processes is key to ensuring that complex interventions in healthcare are taken up in practice and thus maximize intended benefits for service provision and (ultimately) care to patients. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a framework for understanding how a new intervention becomes part of normal practice. This study aims to develop and validate simple generic tools derived from NPT, to be used to improve the implementation of complex healthcare interventions.Objectives: The objectives of this study are to: develop a set of NPT-based measures and formatively evaluate their use for identifying implementation problems and monitoring progress; conduct preliminary evaluation of these measures across a range of interventions and contexts, and identify factors that affect this process; explore the utility of these measures for predicting outcomes; and develop an online users' manual for the measures. METHODS: A combination of qualitative (workshops, item development, user feedback, cognitive interviews) and quantitative (survey) methods will be used to develop NPT measures, and test the utility of the measures in six healthcare intervention settings. DISCUSSION: The measures developed in the study will be available for use by those involved in planning, implementing, and evaluating complex interventions in healthcare and have the potential to enhance the chances of their implementation, leading to sustained changes in working practices.

Concepts: Process theory, Intervention, Identification, Development, Human Development Index, Scientific method, Normalization process model, Normalization Process Theory

150

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), an Asteraceae member, yields high quality edible oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids and is resilient to dry conditions. The crop holds tremendous potential for improvement through concerted molecular breeding programs due to the availability of significant genetic and phenotypic diversity. Genomic resources that could facilitate such breeding programs remain largely underdeveloped in the crop. The present study was initiated to develop a large set of novel microsatellite markers for safflower using next generation sequencing.

Concepts: Development, Carthamus, Fatty acid, Nutrition, Genetics, Linoleic acid, Safflower, Unsaturated fat

65

In recent years, several extreme weather disasters have partially or completely damaged regional crop production. While detailed regional accounts of the effects of extreme weather disasters exist, the global scale effects of droughts, floods and extreme temperature on crop production are yet to be quantified. Here we estimate for the first time, to our knowledge, national cereal production losses across the globe resulting from reported extreme weather disasters during 1964-2007. We show that droughts and extreme heat significantly reduced national cereal production by 9-10%, whereas our analysis could not identify an effect from floods and extreme cold in the national data. Analysing the underlying processes, we find that production losses due to droughts were associated with a reduction in both harvested area and yields, whereas extreme heat mainly decreased cereal yields. Furthermore, the results highlight ~7% greater production damage from more recent droughts and 8-11% more damage in developed countries than in developing ones. Our findings may help to guide agricultural priorities in international disaster risk reduction and adaptation efforts.

Concepts: Disaster, Global warming, Weather hazards, Harvest, Temperature, Weather, Development, Extreme weather

44

The number of mental health apps (MHapps) developed and now available to smartphone users has increased in recent years. MHapps and other technology-based solutions have the potential to play an important part in the future of mental health care; however, there is no single guide for the development of evidence-based MHapps. Many currently available MHapps lack features that would greatly improve their functionality, or include features that are not optimized. Furthermore, MHapp developers rarely conduct or publish trial-based experimental validation of their apps. Indeed, a previous systematic review revealed a complete lack of trial-based evidence for many of the hundreds of MHapps available.

Concepts: Medicine, Health care, Development, Human Development Index

40

Following the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component-which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)-of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country’s national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care. This article describes the lessons learned about social mobilization and community engagement in the emergency response to the Ebola outbreak, with a particular focus on UNICEF’s C4D work in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The lessons emerged through an assessment conducted by UNICEF using 4 methods: a literature review of key documents, meeting reports, and other articles; structured discussions conducted in June 2015 and October 2015 with UNICEF and civil society experts; an electronic survey, launched in October and November 2015, with staff from government, the UN, or any partner organization who worked on Ebola (N = 53); and key informant interviews (N = 5). After triangulating the findings from all data sources, we distilled lessons under 7 major domains: (1) strategy and decentralization: develop a comprehensive C4D strategy with communities at the center and decentralized programming to facilitate flexibility and adaptation to the local context; (2) coordination: establish C4D leadership with the necessary authority to coordinate between partners and enforce use of standard operating procedures as a central coordination and quality assurance tool; (3) entering and engaging communities: invest in key communication channels (such as radio) and trusted local community members; (4) messaging: adapt messages and strategies continually as patterns of the epidemic change over time; (5) partnerships: invest in strategic partnerships with community, religious leaders, journalists, radio stations, and partner organizations; (6) capacity building: support a network of local and international professionals with capacity for C4D who can be deployed rapidly; (7) data and performance monitoring: establish clear C4D process and impact indicators and strive for real-time data analysis and rapid feedback to communities and authorities to inform decision making. Ultimately, communication, community engagement, and social mobilization need to be formally placed within the global humanitarian response architecture with proper funding to effectively support future public health emergencies, which are as much a social as a health phenomenon.

Concepts: Public health, Epidemiology, Development, Liberia, United Nations, Sierra Leone, Communication, World Health Organization

38

Future impacts of climate change on marine fisheries have the potential to negatively influence a wide range of socio-economic factors, including food security, livelihoods and public health, and even to reshape development trajectories and spark transboundary conflict. Yet there is considerable variability in the vulnerability of countries around the world to these effects. We calculate a vulnerability index of 147 countries by drawing on the most recent data related to the impacts of climate change on marine fisheries. Building on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change framework for vulnerability, we first construct aggregate indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity using 12 primary variables. Seven out of the ten most vulnerable countries on the resulting index are Small Island Developing States, and the top quartile of the index includes countries located in Africa (17), Asia (7), North America and the Caribbean (4) and Oceania (8). More than 87% of least developed countries are found within the top half of the vulnerability index, while the bottom half includes all but one of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member states. This is primarily due to the tremendous variation in countries' adaptive capacity, as no such trends are evident from the exposure or sensitivity indices. A negative correlation exists between vulnerability and per capita carbon emissions, and the clustering of states at different levels of development across the vulnerability index suggests growing barriers to meeting global commitments to reducing inequality, promoting human well-being and ensuring sustainable cities and communities. The index provides a useful tool for prioritizing the allocation of climate finance, as well as activities aimed at capacity building and the transfer of marine technology.

Concepts: Socioeconomics, Developed country, North America, Climate change, Development, Human Development Index, United States, Index

36

Delirium is a common, serious and potentially preventable condition with devastating impact on the quality of life prompting a proliferation of interventional trials. Core outcome sets aim to standardise outcome reporting by identifying outcomes perceived fundamental for measurement in trials of a specific interest area. Our aim is to develop international consensus on two core outcome sets for trials of interventions to prevent and/or treat delirium, irrespective of study population. We aim to identify additional core outcomes specific to the critically ill, acutely hospitalised patients, palliative care and older adults.

Concepts: Development, Game theory, Human Development Index

28

Aim.  The article is a report of a study to develop an evidence-based pre-consultation guide for young people to use prior to an asthma review with a practice nurse. Background.  The participation of young people aged 13-19 in consultations with health professionals can be limited by the lack of opportunity to learn the appropriate skills in triadic consultations. Evidence-based interventions to promote participation of adults in consultations have been developed but young people’s needs have not been specifically addressed. Design.  Multiple methods design informed by guidelines for the development of complex interventions. Methods.  A pre-consultation guide for young people was developed in 2007 by application of a model of health behaviour change, development of criteria by an expert panel and in consultation with young people using a nominal group technique. Results.  The concepts of the Health Action Process Approach model were applied to the development of criteria underpinning the pre-consultation guide. In the nominal groups young people agreed that they had different needs to other children and adults. The consensus was that the preconsultation guide should include disease-specific information, realistic photographs rather than Clip Art, consistent styles of fonts, bullet points and colours, short words and mature language. Statements and example questions written by young people were included in the evidence-based guide. Conclusion.  Young people’s views can contribute to the development of interventions designed to promote communication in consultations with nurses. There is potential for this approach to be used to develop interventions in primary and secondary care of a range of long-term conditions.

Concepts: Advanced practice nurse, Intervention, Nurse, Nursing, Psychology, Development, Human Development Index, Health Action Process Approach

26

The global burden of injury is enormous, especially in developing countries. Trauma systems in highincome countries have reduced mortality and disability. An important component of trauma quality improvement programmes is the trauma registry which monitors the epidemiology, processes and outcomes of trauma care. There is a severe deficit of trauma registries in developing countries and there are few resources to support the development of trauma registries. Specifically, publicly available information of trauma registry methodology in developed trauma registries is sparse. The aim of this study was to describe and compare trauma registries globally.

Concepts: Human geography, Registry, Globalization, Development, Developed country, Economic geography, Human Development Index, Developing country