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Concept: Desmopressin

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The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has recently added desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of the endogenous peptide hormone arginine vasopressin, to the Prohibited List, owing to the potential masking effects of this drug on hematic parameters useful to detect blood doping. A qualitative method for detection of desmopressin in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. Desmopressin purification from urine was achieved by means of delipidation with a 60:40 di-isopropyl ether/n-butanol and solid-phase extraction with WCX cartridges. The lower limit of detection was 25 pg/mL. Extraction recovery was determined as 59.3% (SD 29.4), and signal reduction owing to ion suppression was estimated to be 42.7% (SD 12.9). The applicability of the method was proven by the analysis of real urine samples obtained after intravenous, oral and intranasal administration of desmopressin, achieving unambiguous detection of the peptide in all the cases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Hormone, Oxytocin, Vasopressin, Diabetes insipidus, Tandem mass spectrometry, Desmopressin, World Anti-Doping Agency

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Overcorrection of plasma sodium in severe hyponatremia is associated with osmotic demyelination syndrome. Desmopressin (DDAVP) can prevent overcorrection of plasma sodium in hyponatremia. The objective of this study is to compare outcomes in hyponatremia based on DDAVP usage.

Concepts: Neurology, Vasopressin, Sodium, Diabetes insipidus, Hyponatremia, Desmopressin, Central pontine myelinolysis

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A reset osmostat as a cause of hyponatremia can be found in a variety of clinical settings, including pulmonary and neurologic diseases, as well as in physiologic circumstances such as pregnancy. This teaching case describes a 72-year-old white man with a long-standing history of self-medicating with desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) who presented with profound hyponatremia. On discontinuation of DDAVP treatment, he was found to have a reset osmostat. The mild hyponatremia persisted on follow-up. We theorize that the reset osmostat may have developed secondary to long-standing DDAVP use.

Concepts: Medicine, Vasopressin, Diabetes insipidus, Desmopressin

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Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is a frequent cause of visits to the emergency department and a major reason for concern among adolescents and their families. The most common cause of AUB, in otherwise healthy adolescents, is ovulatory dysfunction, although 5-36% of adolescents who present with heavy menstrual bleeding, have an underlying bleeding disorder (BD). The most common form of BDs is von Willebrand Disease, reflecting 13% of adolescents with AUB. Management of AUB depends on the underlying etiology, the bleeding severity, as well as the need for hospitalization. Treatment of adolescents with an underlying coagulopathy depends on the severity of the BD, while therapeutic interventions are summarized in supportive measures, hormonal treatments (e.g. Combined Oral Contraceptives), non-hormonal treatments (e.g. tranexamic acid and desmopressin), surgical options (e.g. dilatation & curettage) and treatment options in specific conditions.

Concepts: Hormonal contraception, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Menstrual cycle, Von Willebrand factor, Von Willebrand disease, Bernard-Soulier syndrome, Menorrhagia, Desmopressin

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The role of desmopressin (DDAVP) to prevent or treat rapid serum sodium concentration ([Na]s) correction during hyponatremia management remains unclear.

Concepts: Vasopressin, Sodium, Serum sodium, Diabetes insipidus, Hypovolemia, Hyponatremia, Desmopressin

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Development of compounds with therapeutic application requires the interaction of different disciplines. Several tumors express vasopressin (AVP; arginine vasopressin) receptors with contrasting effects depending on receptor subtype. Desmopressin (dDAVP) is an AVP-selective analog with antiproliferative properties. In this work, an evolutionary approach and a rational strategy were applied in order to design novel AVP analogs.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Hormone, Carcinoma, Vasopressin, Diabetes insipidus, Desmopressin

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von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common inherited coagulopathy in dogs, particularly in Doberman Pinschers. We developed a pyrosequencing-based assay to estimate the frequency of the c.7437G>A mutation associated with vWD type 1 in the Doberman Pinscher population of Buenos Aires, Argentina. We found a 0.41 frequency for the mutated allele, which varied significantly within families (family 1 = 0.43, family 2 = 0.58, unrelated animals = 0.35). The use of a popular founder male carrier of mutant allele A increased vWD incidence within a family and in the general population. The mode of inheritance was confirmed as autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance. No differences were found between sexes and coat colors. Pyrosequencing was a good complement to clinical and coagulation tests for vWD type 1 diagnosis and a useful alternative for detecting the c.7437G>A mutation.

Concepts: Genetics, Evolution, Coagulation, Platelet, Von Willebrand factor, Von Willebrand disease, Desmopressin, Doberman Pinscher

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Diabetes insipidus, characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is a rare disease during pregnancy. Nevertheless, its recognition is important to avoid complications due to dehydration and hypernatremia. Its manifestation during pregnancy ranges from exacerbation of pre-existing central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus to transient pregnancy-induced diabetes insipidus due to the increased metabolism of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin by the placental vasopressinase. Diagnosis can be challenging, as urinary frequency is common during pregnancy and primary polydipsia also needs to be excluded. Also the standard water deprivation test is not recommended during pregnancy due to the increased risk of complications. Treatment depends upon the final diagnosis, with desmopressin (DDAVP) being the medication of choice in AVP-deficient diabetes insipidus, whereas nephrogenic diabetes insipidus requires treatment of the underlying disease and supportive measures.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus, Endocrinology, Vasopressin, Diabetes insipidus, Polyuria, Desmopressin, Polydipsia, Hypernatremia

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Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is a name given historically to two conditions, which result in ‘diabetes’, which is Greek for ‘syphon’ or polyuria. The “Insipidus” refers to urine being insipid. ‘Cranial DI’ is so called because it relates to a cause within the head characterised by deficiency of vasopressin [antidiuretic hormone (ADH)] secretion from the posterior pituitary. Treatment is with desmopressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin. In contrast ‘Nephrogenic DI’ is due to resistance of the renal tubules to vasopressin action. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Diabetes mellitus, Oxytocin, Vasopressin, Neuroendocrinology, Diabetes insipidus, Desmopressin

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It has been reported that mutations in arginine vasopressin type 2 receptor (AVPR2) cause congenital X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). However, only a few cases of AVPR2 deletion have been documented in China.

Concepts: Genetics, Hormone, Endocrinology, Diabetes, Vasopressin, Diabetes insipidus, Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Desmopressin