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Concept: Desmopressin

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The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has recently added desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of the endogenous peptide hormone arginine vasopressin, to the Prohibited List, owing to the potential masking effects of this drug on hematic parameters useful to detect blood doping. A qualitative method for detection of desmopressin in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. Desmopressin purification from urine was achieved by means of delipidation with a 60:40 di-isopropyl ether/n-butanol and solid-phase extraction with WCX cartridges. The lower limit of detection was 25 pg/mL. Extraction recovery was determined as 59.3% (SD 29.4), and signal reduction owing to ion suppression was estimated to be 42.7% (SD 12.9). The applicability of the method was proven by the analysis of real urine samples obtained after intravenous, oral and intranasal administration of desmopressin, achieving unambiguous detection of the peptide in all the cases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Hormone, Oxytocin, Vasopressin, Diabetes insipidus, Tandem mass spectrometry, Desmopressin, World Anti-Doping Agency

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A reset osmostat as a cause of hyponatremia can be found in a variety of clinical settings, including pulmonary and neurologic diseases, as well as in physiologic circumstances such as pregnancy. This teaching case describes a 72-year-old white man with a long-standing history of self-medicating with desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) who presented with profound hyponatremia. On discontinuation of DDAVP treatment, he was found to have a reset osmostat. The mild hyponatremia persisted on follow-up. We theorize that the reset osmostat may have developed secondary to long-standing DDAVP use.

Concepts: Medicine, Vasopressin, Diabetes insipidus, Desmopressin

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We report a patient with acquired von Willebrand disease, associated with multiple myeloma. At one stage in his illness, we were unable to analyse a sample sent in a serum separator tube, due to the presence of a gel within the separated serum layer. We suggest this was due to anomalous position of the gel because of the density of the sample caused by its high total protein concentration, exacerbated by fibrin strand formation because of inhibition of appropriate fibrin clot formation secondary to clotting disorder.

Concepts: Causality, Coagulation, Fibrin, Platelet, Hemostasis, Von Willebrand factor, Von Willebrand disease, Desmopressin

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For a new formulation of a drug, only pharmacokinetic bioequivalence with the original formulation has to be demonstrated in healthy, young adults. However, “children are not small adults,” and to guarantee a safe and effective treatment, age-adapted drug development is required. Desmopressin, a vasopressin analogue prescribed for nocturnal enuresis in children, was studied as an example formulation first developed in adults and then extrapolated to a pediatric indication.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Vasopressin, Pharmacokinetics, Diabetes insipidus, Bioavailability, Human Development Index, Desmopressin

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Bleeding disorders can be inherited or acquired and demonstrate different levels of severity. Dentists may be called on to treat patients who have bleeding disorders such as hemophilia A and von Willebrand disease (vWD). Dental extraction in any patient with clotting factor defects can result in a delayed bleeding episode. Local hemostatic measures provide effective results in a majority of cases but are insufficient in patients with severe hemophilia A and vWD. Therefore, consultation with the patient’s hematologist is required to ensure preoperative prophylactic coverage. Dental care providers have to be aware of any signs of bleeding disorders and refer patients for further medical investigations. This article aims to provide dental care providers with the knowledge to manage patients with inherited bleeding disorders, especially hemophilia A and vWD.

Concepts: Blood, Coagulation, Platelet, Blood disorders, Von Willebrand factor, Von Willebrand disease, Bernard-Soulier syndrome, Desmopressin

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Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease characterized by the excretion of excessive volumes of dilute urine due to reduced levels of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), caused by an acquired or genetic defect in the neurohypophysis. The aim of this study was to identify any autonomic dysfunction (AD) in patients with DI as a possible cofactor responsible for their reportedly higher mortality.

Concepts: Hypothalamus, Hormone, Endocrinology, Oxytocin, Vasopressin, Diabetes insipidus, Posterior pituitary, Desmopressin

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Overcorrection of plasma sodium in severe hyponatremia is associated with osmotic demyelination syndrome. Desmopressin (DDAVP) can prevent overcorrection of plasma sodium in hyponatremia. The objective of this study is to compare outcomes in hyponatremia based on DDAVP usage.

Concepts: Neurology, Vasopressin, Sodium, Diabetes insipidus, Hyponatremia, Desmopressin, Central pontine myelinolysis

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Deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) underlies diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine and persistent thirst. In this issue of the JCI, Shi et al. report that Sel1L-Hrd1 ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is responsible for the clearance of misfolded pro-arginine vasopressin (proAVP) in the ER. Additionally, mice with Sel1L deficiency, either globally or specifically within AVP-expressing neurons, developed central diabetes insipidus. The results of this study demonstrate a role for ERAD in neuroendocrine cells and serve as a clinical example of the effect of misfolded ER proteins retrotranslocated through the membrane into the cytosol, where they are polyubiquitinated, extracted from the ER membrane, and degraded by the proteasome. Moreover, proAVP misfolding in hereditary central diabetes insipidus likely shares common physiopathological mechanisms with proinsulin misfolding in hereditary diabetes mellitus of youth.

Concepts: Hypothalamus, Diabetes mellitus, Hormone, Endocrinology, Vasopressin, Neuroendocrinology, Diabetes insipidus, Desmopressin

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Although extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass is an effective treatment strategy for symptomatic moyamoya disease, surgeons need to be cautious regarding the possibility of postoperative hemorrhagic complications in patients with a concurrent coagulation disorder. Here, we describe a case of EC-IC bypass for moyamoya disease concurrent with von Willebrand disease (vWD) type 1.

Concepts: Coagulation, Platelet, Von Willebrand factor, Von Willebrand disease, Bernard-Soulier syndrome, Desmopressin

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Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder with an estimated prevalence of ~1% and clinically relevant bleeding symptoms in approximately 1:10,000 individuals. VWD is caused by a deficiency and/or defect of von Willebrand factor (VWF). The most common symptoms are mucocutaneous bleeding, hematomas, and bleeding after trauma or surgery. For decades, treatment to prevent or treat bleeding has consisted of desmopressin in milder cases and of replacement therapy with plasma-derived concentrates containing VWF and Factor VIII (FVIII) in more severe cases. Both are usually combined with supportive therapy, e.g. antifibrinolytic agents, and maximal hemostatic measures. Several developments such as the first recombinant VWF concentrate, which has been recently licensed for VWD, will make a more “personalized” approach to VWD management possible. As research on new treatment strategies for established therapies, such as population pharmacokinetic-guided dosing of clotting factor concentrates, and novel treatment modalities such as aptamers and gene therapy are ongoing, it is likely that the horizon to tailor therapy to the individual patients' needs will be extended, thus, further improving the already high standard of care in VWD in most high-resource countries.

Concepts: Coagulation, Platelet, Von Willebrand factor, Von Willebrand disease, Bernard-Soulier syndrome, Heyde's syndrome, Desmopressin