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Concept: Dermis


BACKGROUND: Estrogen has been reported to accelerate cutaneous wound healing. This research studies the effect of young coconut juice (YCJ), presumably containing estrogen-like substances, on cutaneous wound healing in ovairectomized rats. METHODS: Four groups of female rats (6 in each group) were included in this study. These included sham-operated, ovariectomized (ovx), ovx receiving estradiol benzoate (EB) injections intraperitoneally, and ovx receiving YCJ orally. Two equidistant 1-cm full-thickness skin incisional wounds were made two weeks after ovariectomy. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the third and the fourth week of the study, and their serum estradiol (E2) level was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. The skin was excised and examined in histological sections stained with H&E, and immunostained using anti-estrogen receptor (ER-alpha an ER-beta) antibodies. RESULTS: Wound healing was accelerated in ovx rats receiving YCJ, as compared to controls. This was associated with significantly higher density of immunostaining for ER-alpha an ER-beta in keratinocytes, fibroblasts, white blood cells, fat cells, sebaceous gland, skeletal muscles, and hair shafts and follicles. This was also associated with thicker epidermis and dermis, but with thinner hypodermis. In addition, the number and size of immunoreactive hair follicles for both ER-alpha and ER-beta were the highest in the ovx+YCJ group, as compared to the ovx+EB group. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that YCJ has estrogen-like characteristics, which in turn seem to have beneficial effects on cutaneous wound healing.

Concepts: Wound healing, Healing, Estradiol, Skin, Dermis, Epidermis, Sebaceous gland, Coconut water


The objective of this study was to prepare a suitable formulation for dermal delivery of diflucortolone valerate (DFV) that would maintain the localization in skin layers without any penetration and to optimize efficiency of DFV. Drug-loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles with high entrapment efficiency (86.8%), were successfully prepared by ionic interaction technique. Sustained release of DFV was achieved without any initial burst release. Nanoparticles were also incorporated into chitosan gel at different ratios for preparing a more suitable formulation for topical drug delivery with adequate viscosity. In ex-vivo permeation studies, nanoparticles increased the accumulation of DFV especially in the stratum corneum + epidermis of rat skin without any significant permeation. Retention of DFV from nanoparticle in chitosan gel formulation (0.01%) was twofold higher than commercial cream, although it contained ten times less DFV. Nanoparticles in gel formulations produced significantly higher edema inhibition in rats compared with commercial cream in in-vivo studies. Skin blanching assay using a chromameter showed vasoconstriction similar to that of the commercial product. There were no barrier function changes upon application of nanoparticles. In-vitro and in-vivo results demonstrated that lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel may be a promising carrier for dermal delivery of DFV in various skin disorders.

Concepts: Colloid, Skin, Topical, Dermis, Epidermis, Keratin, Stratum corneum, Topical steroid


Myopericytoma is a soft tissue tumor with perivascular myoid differentiation. It accounts for 1% of the vascular tumors and involves mostly cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue of the limbs in adults. Malignant myopericytoma is exceedingly rare. A 15-year old girl presented with slowly progressive mass over left shoulder region. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry after complete excision revealed it as malignant myopericytoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Soft tissue sarcoma, Anatomical pathology, Histology, Neoplasm, Tissue, Dermis


Caloric restriction (CR) is the most effective intervention known to enhance lifespan, but its effect on the skin is poorly understood. Here, we show that CR mice display fur coat remodeling associated with an expansion of the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) pool. We also find that the dermal adipocyte depot (dWAT) is underdeveloped in CR animals. The dermal/vennule annulus vasculature is enlarged, and a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) switch and metabolic reprogramming in both the dermis and the epidermis are observed. When the fur coat is removed, CR mice display increased energy expenditure associated with lean weight loss and locomotion impairment. Our findings indicate that CR promotes extensive skin and fur remodeling. These changes are necessary for thermal homeostasis and metabolic fitness under conditions of limited energy intake, suggesting a potential adaptive mechanism.

Concepts: Angiogenesis, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Skin, Knowledge, Dermis, Epidermis, Skin anatomy, Fur


Objectives: Allergic reactions to Prolene are rare. This paper reports a nasal tip abscess which developed in a patient with an adverse skin reaction to Prolene after rhinoplasty. Methods and results: A 26-year-old woman presented with painful, progressive nasal tip swelling and redness. She had undergone septo-rhinoplasty two years previously. She was initially treated with endonasal drainage of the abscess and antibiotics, but a revision rhinoplasty three months later became necessary because of recurrent abscess formation. Intra-operative findings included granulation tissue with pockets of pus and knotted Prolene sutures at the tip-defining points of the lower lateral cartilages. She was patch-tested with Prolene and a cutaneous Prolene suture was placed on her back; an adverse skin reaction was seen for the latter. Conclusion: Use of non-absorbable sutures, such as Prolene, in the subcutaneous layer may be a potential, rare risk factor for adverse skin reactions.

Concepts: Collagen, Allergy, Skin, Tissue, Term, Nose, Surgical suture, Dermis


OBJECTIVE: To describe a tenosynoviotomy technique for treatment of sepsis of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) in horses and report long-term outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. ANIMALS: Horses (n = 9). METHODS: Horses were positioned in lateral recumbency with the affected limb uppermost. A linear incision was made just lateral to the mesotenon beginning 5 cm proximal to the apices of the proximal sesamoid bones, extending 2 cm distal to the bifurcation of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT). The incision was continued through the skin, subcutaneous tissue, palmar/plantar annular ligament, and DFTS. Tenotomy of the distal lateral branch of the SDFT was also performed. The site was thoroughly debrided, lavaged, and packed with gauze and allowed to heal by second intention. Follow-up was obtained via owner telephone interview. RESULTS: Mean surgery time was 32 minutes (range, 10-64 minutes). Systemic antibiotics were administered postoperatively (range, 11-46 days; mean, 23 days). Mean hospitalization was 11 days (range, 0-49 days). Follow-up was available for 7 (70%) horses. One year postoperatively, 5 (71%) horses were serviceable for their intended use, and 2 (29%) had been euthanatized. Of 5 survivors, 3 returned to ridden exercise, 1 was retired as a broodmare, and 1 was a broodmare. All owners were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance of the surgery site. CONCLUSION: Open drainage via tenosynoviotomy, performed as a salvage procedure, represents a feasible treatment for DFTS sepsis.

Concepts: Bacteria, Skin, Dermis, Ligament, Tendon, Subcutaneous tissue, Common flexor tendon, Sesamoid bone


Skin compartments traditionally targeted by cosmetic actives - epidermis and dermis - are anchored and nourished by the underlying hypodermis, which therefore should be a key target for skin-rejuvenating formulations. However, given the difficulty to reach even the superficial layers of the skin, and to its “unglamorous” fatty composition, the regenerative potential of hypodermis remains largely untapped. Therefore, this study was to investigate the capacity of a cosmetic material to trigger a regenerative response in dermis and epidermis through a selective action on hypodermis. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the effect of such cosmetic material in transbuccal hypodermal delivery form, on the hypodermal precursor cells - the preadipocytes.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fat, Skin, Dermis, Epidermis, Subcutaneous tissue, Subcutis


BACKGROUND: Skin hydration is defined as the water content of the epidermis and the dermis. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy offers the opportunity to determine in vivo the kinetics of the skin after the application of topical products. OBJECTIVE: To define confocal features associated with dry skin and assess the microscopic effects of different moisturizers. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled for the study. Two different formulations were tested: petrolatum and a commercially available emulsion. Measurements were performed from baseline to 3 h after removal of the occlusion at regular time points. Nine confocal features were assessed: furrows' size, overall interkeratinocyte reflectance, furrows' morphology, scales, skin surface irregularity, non-rimmed dermal papillae, exocytosis, dermal inflammation and collagen type. Furrows' size and interkeratinocyte reflectance were also quantitated using a digital analysis. Stratum corneum capacitance was recorded. RESULTS: At baseline, RCM showed the presence of micro-scales and high skin surface irregularity score. After the application of topical products, the scale score decreased significantly; Furrow’s size and Digital Furrow’s Size had a marked and directly correlated decrement. Furrow’s morphology and Epidermal Irregularity scores decreased from baseline to 30 min, the latter reaching a plateau in product application areas. Interestingly, interkeratinocyte reflectance progressively increased with the application of the topical products, while remained stable in the control area, confirmed by Digital Interkeratinocytes reflectance quantitation. CONCLUSION: RCM revealed that the changes involve the skin surface by reducing the micro-scales and epidermal irregularity. Even more interestingly, RCM showed that higher interkeratinocytes' brightness is seen for moisturizer, but not for the control area. This RCM finding could be linked to keratinocyte membrane protein exposure and/or substance release in the interkeratinocytic space. To sum up, RCM represents a useful imaging tool to analyze the morphologic changes at different time points following the application of topical products.

Concepts: Collagen, Assessment, Skin, Dermis, Epidermis, Keratin, Skin anatomy, Papillary dermis


BACKGROUND: Skin involvement is of major prognostic value in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and often the primary outcome in clinical trials. Nevertheless, an objective, validated biomarker of skin fibrosis is lacking. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technology providing high-contrast images with 4 μm resolution, comparable with microscopy (‘virtual biopsy’). The present study evaluated OCT to detect and quantify skin fibrosis in SSc. METHODS: We performed 458 OCT scans of hands and forearms on 21 SSc patients and 22 healthy controls. We compared the findings with histology from three skin biopsies and by correlation with clinical assessment of the skin. We calculated the optical density (OD) of the OCT images employing Matlab software and performed statistical analysis of the results, including intraobserver/interobserver reliability, employing SPSS software. RESULTS: Comparison of OCT images with skin histology indicated a progressive loss of visualisation of the dermal-epidermal junction associated with dermal fibrosis. Furthermore, SSc affected skin showed a consistent decrease of OD in the papillary dermis, progressively worse in patients with worse modified Rodnan skin score (p<0.0001). Additionally, clinically unaffected skin was also distinguishable from healthy skin for its specific pattern of OD decrease in the reticular dermis (p<0.001). The technique showed an excellent intraobserver and interobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.8). CONCLUSIONS: OCT of the skin could offer a feasible and reliable quantitative outcome measure in SSc. Studies determining OCT sensitivity to change over time and its role in defining skin vasculopathy may pave the way to defining OCT as a valuable imaging biomarker in SSc.

Concepts: Optics, Biopsy, Skin, Optical coherence tomography, Covariance and correlation, Dermis, Scleroderma, Skin biopsy


Glomus tumours (GTs) resemble the normal glomus body and have a predilection for skin and subcutaneous tissue. Although the majority of glomus tumours are small, benign neoplasms that occur in the dermis or subcutis of the extremities and cases of atypical or malignant variants have been reported. We report a case of a man who presented with a 1-year history of subcutaneous nodule in the right scapular area which was mildly tender. The nodule measured 2 cm. Microscopic examination showed features of glomus tumour with increased mitotic activity. These features, by current definition, would suggest glomus tumour of uncertain malignant potential. Three months later, he presented with recurrence. During his metastasis work-up, we noticed bilateral pulmonary metastasis. Metastasising GTs are rare. The patient underwent wide local excision and received chemotherapy.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Benign tumor, Tumor, Neoplasm, Dermis, Subcutaneous tissue, Glomus tumor