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Concept: Dermatitis


Disperse dyes, which are used for colouring synthetic textile fibres, are well-known contact sensitisers. To investigate the outcome of patch-testing with a textile dye mix (TDM) at 7 dermatology clinics in Sweden, a TDM tested at 2 concentrations was included into the baseline series during one year. The mix consisted of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, all 1.0%, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, each 0.3% in the mix 6.6% and 1.0% each in the mix 8.0%. In 2,122 tested patients, contact allergy to the TDM 8.0% was found in 2.8% and to the TDM 6.6% in 2.5% of the patients. The contact allergy to the TDM could explain or contribute to the dermatitis in about 35% of the patients. Conclusion: contact allergy to the TDM is common and inclusion into the Swedish baseline series should be considered.

Concepts: Hospital, Hypersensitivity, Eczema, Dermatitis, Contact dermatitis, Silk, Synthetic fiber, Aramid



Background  Lipoxins are potential anti-inflammatory mediators and serve as an endogenous ‘braking signal’ in the inflammatory process. Accumulating evidence has indicated the efficacy of lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4) ) and its analogs in the treatment of many animal models of inflammatory diseases. Objectives  This study investigates the efficacy and safety of 15(R/S)-methyl-lipoxin A(4) in the topical treatment of infantile eczema. Patients and methods  In this two-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-groups comparative study, 60 patients were randomly assigned to receive either the 15(R/S)-methyl-lipoxin A(4) cream, mometasone furoate (Eloson, Schering-Plough, Shanghai, China) or placebo for 10 days. The efficacy was determined using the Severity Scale Score (SSS), Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) and the Infants' Dermatitis Quality of Life Index (IDQOL). Safety was monitored by physical examination, laboratory investigation and documentation of clinical adverse events. Results  The treatment of eczema with 15(R/S)-methyl-LXA(4) cream significantly relieved the severity, induced a recovery, and improved the quality of life of the patients, as demonstrated by significantly reduced SSS, EASI and IDQOL, respectively, in a way similar to the efficacy of Eloson. All safety parameters remained within normal limits. No clinical adverse event was found in the three patient groups. Conclusions  15(R/S)-methyl-LXA(4) was well tolerated, and significantly reduced the severity of eczema. The results of this small exploratory study suggest that 15(R/S)-methyl-LXA(4) warrants further investigation in the treatment of eczema.

Concepts: Inflammation, Clinical trial, Asthma, Anti-inflammatory, Clinical research, Eczema, Dermatitis, Lipoxin


PURPOSE: To investigate the percutaneous permeation pathways of cell penetrating peptide modified lipid nanoparticles and oleic acid modified polymeric nanoparticles. METHODS: Confocal microscopy was performed on skin cultures (EpiDermFT™) for modified and un-modified nanoparticles. Differential stripping was performed following in vitro skin permeation of Ibuprofen (Ibu) encapsulated nanoparticles to estimate Ibu levels in different skin layers and receiver compartment. The hair follicles (HF) were blocked and in vitro skin permeation of nanoparticles was then compared with unblocked HF. The surface modified nanoparticles were investigated for response on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). RESULTS: Surface modified nanoparticles showed a significant higher (p < 0.05) in fluorescence in EpiDermFT™ cultures compared to controls. The HF play less than 5% role in total nanoparticle permeation into the skin. The Ibu levels were significantly high (p < 0.05) for surface modified nanoparticles compared to controls. The Ibu levels in skin and receiver compartment were not significantly different when HF were open or closed. Modified nanoparticles showed significant improvement in treatment of ACD compared to solution. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies demonstrate that increased skin permeation of surface modified nanoparticles is not only dependent on a follicular pathway but also occur through non-follicular pathway(s).

Concepts: Protein, Nanoparticle, Sol-gel, Colloid, Skin, Eczema, Dermatitis, Contact dermatitis


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2010, wind energy coverage in Spain increased by 16%, making the country the world’s fourth largest producer in a fast-developing industry that is also a source of employment. Occupational skin diseases in this field have received little attention. The present study aims to describe the main characteristics of skin diseases affecting workers in the wind energy industry and the allergens involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive, observational study of workers from the wind energy industry with suspected contact dermatitis who were referred to the occupational dermatology clinic of the National School of Occupational Medicine (Escuela Nacional de Medicina del Trabajo) between 2009 and 2011. We took both a clinical history and an occupational history, and patients underwent a physical examination and patch testing with the materials used in their work. RESULTS: We studied 10 workers (8 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 33.7 years. The main finding was dermatitis, which affected the face, eyelids, forearms, and hands. Sensitization to epoxy resins was detected in 4 workers, 1 of whom was also sensitized to epoxy curing agents. One worker was sensitized to bisphenol F resin but had a negative result with epoxy resin from the standard series. In the 5 remaining cases, the final diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis due to fiberglass. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational skin diseases are increasingly common in the wind energy industry. The main allergens are epoxy resins. Fiberglass tends to produce irritation.

Concepts: Bisphenol A, Composite material, Eczema, Epoxy, Dermatitis, Contact dermatitis, Fiberglass, Gelcoat


A water-soluble polysaccharide (LJP-1), with a molecular weight of 1.8×10(5) Da, was isolated from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed that the LJP-1 was mainly composed of d-glucose and a small amount of d-arabinose. On the basis of methylation analysis, LJP-1 had the backbone chain mainly consisting of 1,6-linked Glc and 1,3,6-linked Glc, which was terminated with 1-linked Ara residues at the O-3 position of 1,3,6-linked Glc in a relative molar ratio of 2.9:1:0.9. The anti-allergic effect of LJP-1 was evaluated on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) induced by picryl chloride (PC) in mouse ear. Similar to prednisolone, orally administrated LJP-1 (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) potently inhibited the PC-induced ACD, leading to substantial reductions in ear thickness, serum level of IgE and histamine, as well as tissue TNF-α. These results demonstrate that treatment with LJP-1 may be effective for preventing the development of PC-induced ACD.

Concepts: Asthma, Hypersensitivity, Mast cell, Gas chromatography, Eczema, Dermatitis, Contact dermatitis, Honeysuckle


Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) signaling in keratinocytes plays an important role in mediating inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis and contact dermatitis. Illicium verum Hook. f. has been used in traditional medicine for treating skin inflammation, rheumatism, asthma, and bronchitis in Asia.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Asthma, Eczema, Dermatitis, Star anise, Illicium


Background  Melanocytes involved in vitiligo may have inherent aberrations that make them vulnerable to extracellular insult. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has been implicated in the development and progression of vitiligo. This study was conducted to investigate the association between ACD and vitiligo. Methods  A total of 125 patients with vitiligo, who showed lesions in particular locations, onset at an older age, and/or pre-existing inflammation or pruritus, were included. Patch tests were performed using a Korean standard series. In order to investigate the association between avoidance of allergen and clinical improvement, 43 vitiligo patients who showed positive reactions to the patch test completed a questionnaire administered by telephone and self-assessed the status of their condition using a 10-point scale. Results  A total of 98 (78.4%) of 125 patients with vitiligo showed positive patch test reactions to at least one antigen. Although a limited number of contact allergens may have specific predilection sites, a significant association (P = 0.002, odds ratio 3.06) was found between lesions distributed on the scalp and/or hairline and a positive patch test reaction to paraphenylenediamine (PPD). A positive correlation (P = 0.03) was also detected between avoidance of allergen and improvement of vitiligo lesions. Conclusions  Causative allergens of ACD may play a role in the development and/or aggravation of vitiligo.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Antigen, Allergen, Eczema, Dermatitis, Contact dermatitis, Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis


A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

Concepts: Inflammation, Patient, Hypersensitivity, Eczema, Face, Acne vulgaris, Dermatitis, Contact dermatitis


Incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to para-phenylenediamine (PPD)/paratoluenediamine (PTD) hair dyes is increasing. Hair dyes utilizing gallic acid (GA) may be a safe alternative. However, pretesting is recommended. We investigated the contact sensitivity to ingredients of a dye product; GA, monoethanolamine thioglycolate (MT), l-cystein and ferrous sulfate, and an appropriate pretest method in 31 patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. An open test was performed with the test dye following the patch test. Subsequently, a use test was performed twice, with a 4-week interval. One subject showed a positive reaction to ferrous sulfate in the patch test. Another subject reacted to the first compound alone in the open test. Thirteen subjects manifesting cutaneous lesions from previous regular hair dyeing, showed reactions at the first use of the test dye; and six had reactions with reduced severity at the second test. GA and MT are safe for use in ACD patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. For predicting contact allergy to hair dyes, the open test appeared to be a better pretest method than the patch test.

Concepts: Hypersensitivity, Dye, Eczema, Dermatitis, Contact dermatitis, Hair coloring, Hairstyle