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Concept: Dental implant

171

As a result of major ablative surgery, head and neck oncology patients can be left with significant defects in the orofacial region. The resultant defect raises the need for advanced reconstruction techniques. The reconstruction in this region is aimed at restoring function and facial contour. The use of vascularised free flaps has revolutionised the reconstruction in the head and neck. Advances in reconstruction techniques have resulted in continuous improvement of oral rehabilitation. For example, endosteal implants are being used to restore the masticatory function by the way of prosthetic replacement of the dentition. Implant rehabilitation usually leads to improved facial appearance, function, restoration of speech and mastication. Suitable dental implant placement’s site requires satisfactory width, height and quality of bone. Reconstruction of hard tissue defects therefore will need to be tailored to meet the needs for implant placement.The aim of this feasibility study was to assess the compatibility of five standard commercially available dental implant systems (Biomet 3i, Nobel Biocare, Astra tech, Straumann and Ankylos) for placement into vascularised fibula graft during the reconstruction of oromandibular region.Radiographs (2D) of the lower extremities from 142 patients in the archives of the Department of Radiology in University College London Hospitals (UCLH) were analysed in this study. These radiographs were from 61 females and 81 males. Additionally, 60 unsexed dry fibular bones, 30 right sided, acquired from the collection of the Department of Anatomy, University College London (UCL) were also measured to account for the 3D factor.In the right fibula (dry bone), 90% of the samples measured had a width of 13.1 mm. While in the left fibula (dry bone), 90% of the samples measured had a width of 13.3 mm. Fibulas measured on radiographs had a width of 14.3 mm in 90% of the samples. The length ranges of the dental implants used in this study were: 7-13 mm (Biomet 3i), 10-13 mm (Nobel biocare), 8-13 mm (Astra Tech), 8-12 mm (Straumann ) and 8-11 mm (Ankylos).This study reached a conclusion that the width of fibula is sufficient for placement of most frequently used dental implants for oral rehabilitation after mandibular reconstructive procedures.

Concepts: Implants, Dental implant, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Osseointegration, Free flap, Per-Ingvar Brånemark, Nobel Biocare, University College London

147

Subjects susceptible to chronic periodontitis (CP) show a high risk for the development of peiimplantitis (PI). Both diseases are multifactorial, presenting similarities in their pathophysiology and polygenic profile. MMP-13 (matrix metalloproteinases 13/ collagenase 3) is a collagenolytic enzyme, which expression is induced by TGF beta 3 (transforming growth factor type 3) in human gingival fibroblasts and inhibited by TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase type 2). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of peiimplantitis (PI) in subjects with history of chronic periodontitis (CP) and polymorphisms frequency in MMP13, TIMP2 and TGFB3 genes. One hundred and sixty-three volunteers received dental implant placement were submitted to oral and radiographic examination in order to identify past history of CP or presence of PI. Volunteers were divided into 4 groups: Control (without PI and CP, n=72), CP (with CP and without PI, n=28), PI (with PI and without CP, n=28) and diseased (with CP and PI, n=35). The chi-square test correlated genotypes in specific regions of MMP13 (rs2252070), TIMP2 (rs7501477) and TGFB3 (rs2268626) genes, considering the interaction between CP and PI. The results showed that volunteers with CP had 3.2 times more susceptibility to develop PI (p=0.0004) compared to those without CP. No significant association was observed in MMP13, TIMP2 and TGFB3 genes with CP or PI. CP is a risk factor to develop PI, however, there is no association of both diseases with polymorphisms in the MMP13, TIMP2 and TGFB3 genes.

Concepts: Gene, Genetics, Dental implant, Dentistry, Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, Transforming growth factor, TGF beta, TGF beta 3

144

To evaluate the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of a biodegradable bimatoprost sustained-release implant (Bimatoprost SR).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Effectiveness, ClinicalTrials.gov, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Dental implant

63

Dentists prescribe approximately 10% of antibiotics dispensed in UK community pharmacies. Despite clear clinical guidance, dentists often prescribe antibiotics inappropriately. This cluster-randomised controlled trial used routinely collected National Health Service (NHS) dental prescribing and treatment claim data to compare the impact of individualised audit and feedback (A&F) interventions on dentists' antibiotic prescribing rates.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Pharmaceutical industry, National Health Service, Dental implant, Dentistry

30

Background: There are a few prospective studies reporting on new implant systems. When a new implant is brought to market, prospective trials should be carried out to determine the predictability of that system. Purpose: This prospective study evaluates implant survival, Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA), and crestal bone level changes for a new implant system (Neoss System, Bimodal surface, Neoss Ltd, Harrogate, UK). Materials and Methods: Seventy-six patients, 38 females (age ranging from 23 to 57 years) and 38 males (ranging in age from 17 to 85 years) received 100 Neoss implants. Patients were consecutively enrolled in the study if they were missing one or more teeth in either arch, or a single tooth was scheduled for removal and immediate implant replacement. Evaluated implants were 4, 4.5, or 5 mm wide and were 7, 9, 11, 13, or 15 mm long. A one-stage approach was followed. At first stage and prior to healing abutment placement RFA measurements were taken. Measurements were retaken at second stage. Fifty-one implants were placed for restoration of single missing teeth and 49 were for short span implant bridges. Results: The cumulative survival rate at 1- to 2-year interval was 93%. Average initial RFA measurement for all implants was 72.06, while the average final score was 72.58. These changes were not statistically significant. Changes in RFA scores for maxillary implants were insignificant. Forty-two paired mandibular RFA measurements were evaluated. Initial and final mean mandibular RAF measurements were 73.65 (SD 9.203) and 77.186 (SD 6.177), respectively. These changes were statistically significant (p = .02). Sixty-four paired radiographs were available for evaluation. Between examinations, there was an average -0.6 mm of bone loss, which was statistically significant (p = .03). On average, 4.0-mm-wide implants lost 0.1 mm of bone when compared with 5-mm-wide implants. These differences were insignificant (p = .86). Bone loss was adjusted for implant length, and tooth position and there were small, but clinically insignificant changes. Five-millimeter-wide implants lose 0.2 mm more than 4.0-mm-wide implants (p = .7). Maxillary incisors lose the least amount of bone 0.152 (p = .33). Conclusions: The implants tested in this study had initially high RAF readings, indicating good primary stability. RFA readings for implants placed in the mandible improved from baseline and the changes were statistically significant. Marginal bone levels revealed clinically insignificant bone loss from implant installation to second stage. Loss of seven implants with initially high RFA readings is surprising.

Concepts: Statistics, Teeth, Dental implant, Dentistry, Resonance, Resonance Frequency Analysis, Implant stability quotient, Electrical resonance

30

Background: Enhancing the connective tissue seal around dental implants may be an important factor in implant survival. Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of implant surface modification with either platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on connective tissue attachment to titanium implants. Materials and Methods: Eighteen implants (Branemark® Mk III Groovy NP (3.3 mmØ × 10 mm, Nobel Biocare) were implanted subcutaneously into 12 rats. Six implants each were coated with either PDGF or EMD immediately prior to implantation and six implants were left uncoated. Implants were retrieved at 4 and 8 weeks and assessed histologically to compare the soft tissue adaptation to the implant surfaces. Results: Ingrowth by soft connective tissue into the threads of all implants was noted at 4 and 8 weeks. Coating with growth factors did not alter the orientation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers. The depth of connective tissue penetration into the implant grooves was significantly greater for the implants coated with PDGF at 4 weeks. The thickness of the connective tissue in growth was significantly less for the implants coated with PDGF at 8 weeks. Conclusion: Coating of the implant surface with rhPDGF-BB or EMD can increase the speed and quantity of soft tissue healing around the implant surface.

Concepts: Collagen, Angiogenesis, Growth factor, Tissues, Dental implant, Growth factors, Platelet-derived growth factor, Nobel Biocare

30

Background: Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is a noninvasive technique for the quantitative assessment of implant stability. Information on the implant stability quotient (ISQ) of transmucosally inserted implants is limited. Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to compare the ISQ of conventionally inserted implants by raising a muco-periostal flap with implants inserted using a flapless procedure. Materials and Methods: Forty elderly patients with complete edentulous maxilla were consecutively admitted for treatment with implant-supported prostheses. A computer tomography was obtained for the computer-assisted implant planning. One hundred ten implants were placed conventionally in 23 patients (flap-group) and 85 implants in 17 patients by means of the flapless method (flapless-group) using a stereolithographic template. RFA measurements were performed after implant placement (baseline) and after a healing time of 12 weeks (reentry). Results: All implants exhibited clinically and radiographically successful osseointegration. Bone level did not change significantly neither for genders nor type of surgical protocol. Mean ISQ values of the flapless-group were significantly higher at baseline (p < .001) and at reentry (p < .001) compared with the flap-group. The ISQ values were significantly lower at reentry compared with baseline for the flap-group (p = .028) but not for the flapless-group. This group showed a moderate, but insignificant increase. RFA measurements of males resulted in ISQ values that were thoroughly higher as compared with females at both time-points in both groups. Correlation between RFA and bone level was not found. Conclusions: The flapless procedure showed favorable conditions with regard to implant stability and crestal bone level. Some changes of the ISQ values that represent primary (mechanical) and secondary (bone remodeling) implant stability were observed in slight favor of the flapless method and male patients. In properly planned and well-selected cases, the minimal invasive transmucosal technique using a drill-guide is a safe procedure.

Concepts: Male, Dental implant, Dentistry, Resonance, Resonance Frequency Analysis, Implant stability quotient

29

Background: Early implant placement with simultaneous contour augmentation is documented with short- and medium-term studies. The long-term stability of contour augmentation is uncertain. Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 41 patients with an implant-borne single crown were examined twice, in 2006 and 2010. Clinical, radiologic, and esthetic parameters were assessed at both examinations. In addition, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image was obtained during the second examination to assess the dimensions of the facial bone wall. Results: All 41 implants demonstrated ankylotic stability without signs of peri-implant infection at both examinations. The clinical parameters remained stable over time. Satisfactory esthetic outcomes were noted, as assessed by the pink and white esthetic score (PES/WES) indices. Overall, the PES scores were slightly higher than the WES scores. None of the implants developed mucosal recession over time, as confirmed by facial DIM values and cast measurements. The periapical radiographs yielded stable peri-implant bone levels, with a mean DIB of 2.22 mm. The CBCT analysis demonstrated a mean thickness of the facial bone wall around 2.2 mm. In two implants (4.9%) no facial bone wall was detectable radiographically. Conclusions: This prospective cross-sectional study demonstrated stable peri-implant hard and soft tissues for all 41 implants examined, and satisfactory esthetic outcomes overall. The follow-up of 5 to 9 years confirmed again that the risk for mucosal recession is low with early implant placement. In addition, contour augmentation with guided bone regeneration (GBR) was able to establish and maintain a facial bone wall in 95% of patients.

Concepts: Time, Medical imaging, Term, Dental implant, Cauchy distribution

29

Many surgical procedures use metal implants in bone. The clinical results depend on the strength of the bone holding these implants. Our objective was to show that a drug released from the implant surface can improve parameters reflecting the quality or amount of this bone. Sixteen patients received paired dental titanium implants in the maxilla, in a randomized, double-blinded fashion. One implant in each pair was coated with a thin fibrinogen layer containing 2 bisphosphonates. The other implant was untreated. Fixation was evaluated by measurement of resonance frequency (implant stability quotient; ISQ) serving as a proxy for stiffness of the implant-bone construct. Increase in ISQ at 6months of follow-up was the primary variable. None of the patients had any complications. The resonance frequency increased 6.9 ISQ units more for the coated implants (p=0.0001; Cohen’s d=1.3). The average difference in increase in ISQ, and the effect size, suggested a clinically relevant improvement. X-ray showed less bone resorption at the margin of the implant both at 2months (p=0.012) and at 6months (p=0.012). In conclusion, a thin, bisphosphonate-eluting fibrinogen coating might improve the fixation of metal implants in human bone. This might lead to new possibilities for orthopedic surgery in osteoporotic bone and for dental implants.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Improve, Surgery, Dental implant, Titanium, Dentistry, Resonance Frequency Analysis, Implant stability quotient

28

Subtalar joint arthroereisis is a surgical modality that has been shown to be an effective procedure for flexible flatfoot in both pediatric and adult populations. Despite advances in understanding its mechanics and function, complication and implant removal rates remain as high as 30% to 40%. Analysis was performed to determine the survivability of 2 subtalar joint arthroereisis implants, absorbable and nonabsorbable, used alone and in combination with other procedures in both the adult and pediatric populations. The 95 total arthroereisis procedures were analyzed in several major categories: absorbable implants versus nonabsorbable implants and adult versus pediatric patients. Each major group was then further subdivided to create further subgroups: absorbable isolated procedures, absorbable combined procedures, nonabsorbable isolated procedures, and nonabsorbable combined procedures. The overall survival rates were 83% for absorbable implants and 81% for nonabsorbable implants. A total of 11 (17%) absorbable implants and 6 (19%) nonabsorbable implants were removed, respectively, at an average of 9 months and 23 months postoperatively. When used alone and in combination with other procedures, 36% and 13% of absorbable implants and 18% and 19% of nonabsorbable implants, respectively, were removed. When comparing adult versus pediatric populations, the overall survival rates of the absorbable and nonabsorbable implants were 81% for absorbable implants and 79% for nonabsorbable implants in the adult population and 85% for absorbable implants and 100% for nonabsorbable implants in the pediatric population.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level III; Retrospective comparative series.

Concepts: Population, Dental implant, Flat feet