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Concept: Dendritic cell


NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich-repeat-containing receptors; NOD-like receptors) are a class of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that respond to host perturbation from either infectious agents or cellular stress. The function of most NLR family members has not been characterized and their role in instructing adaptive immune responses remains unclear. NLRP10 (also known as PYNOD, NALP10, PAN5 and NOD8) is the only NLR lacking the putative ligand-binding leucine-rich-repeat domain, and has been postulated to be a negative regulator of other NLR members, including NLRP3 (refs 4-6). We did not find evidence that NLRP10 functions through an inflammasome to regulate caspase-1 activity nor that it regulates other inflammasomes. Instead, Nlrp10(-/-) mice had a profound defect in helper T-cell-driven immune responses to a diverse array of adjuvants, including lipopolysaccharide, aluminium hydroxide and complete Freund’s adjuvant. Adaptive immunity was impaired in the absence of NLRP10 because of a dendritic cell (DC) intrinsic defect in emigration from inflamed tissues, whereas upregulation of DC costimulatory molecules and chemotaxis to CCR7-dependent and -independent ligands remained intact. The loss of antigen transport to the draining lymph nodes by a subset of migratory DCs resulted in an almost absolute loss in naive CD4(+) T-cell priming, highlighting the critical link between diverse innate immune stimulation, NLRP10 activity and the immune function of mature DCs.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Innate immune system, Immunology, Humoral immunity, Adaptive immune system, Dendritic cell, Immunologic adjuvant


Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which directly prime or cross-prime MHC I-restricted cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). However, recent evidence suggests the existence of other, as-yet unidentified APCs also able to prime T cells. To identify those APCs, we used adenoviral (rAd) vectors, which do not infect DCs but selectively accumulate in CD169(+) macrophages (MPs). In mice that lack DCs, infection of CD169(+) MPs was sufficient to prime CTLs specific for all epitopes tested. In contrast, CTL responses relying exclusively on cross-presenting DCs were biased to selected strong MHC I-binding peptides only. When both DCs and MPs were absent, no CTL responses could be elicited. Therefore, CD169(+) MPs can be considered APCs that significantly contribute to CTL responses.

Concepts: Immune system, White blood cell, Virus, Antigen, Cytotoxic T cell, Dendritic cell, MHC class I, Antigen-presenting cell


Recent evidence indicates that toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 are involved in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), but the exact mechanisms of their actions have not been elucidated. We explored the therapeutic potential of blocking TLRs in mice with established cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy was generated by a single intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg). Two weeks later, the mice were treated with TLR2 or TLR4 neutralizing antibody. Blocking TLR2, but not TLR4, activity not only reduced mortality, but also attenuated doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction by 20% and inhibited myocardial fibrosis. To determine the differential effects of blocking TLR2 and TLR4 in chronic cardiomyopathy, mice were injected with doxorubicin (3.5 mg/kg) once a week for 8 weeks, followed by treatment with TLR2 or TLR4 neutralizing antibody for 40 days. Blocking TLR2 activity blunted cardiac dysfunction by 13% and inhibited cardiac fibrosis, which was associated with a significant suppression of myocardial inflammation. The underlying mechanism involved interrupting the interaction of TLR2 with its endogenous ligands, resulting in attenuation of inflammation and fibrosis. In contrast, blocking TLR4 exacerbated cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis by amplifying inflammation and suppressing autophagy. Our studies demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR4 play distinct roles in the progression of doxorubicin-induced DCM. TLR4 activity is crucial for the resolution of inflammation and cardiac fibrosis, while blocking TLR2 activity has therapeutic potential for the treatment of DCM.

Concepts: Immune system, Toll-like receptor, Dendritic cell, Differential equation, Toll-like receptors, Dilated cardiomyopathy, TLR 2


The administration of interleukin 33 and deletion of IL-33 receptor, ST2 molecule, affects the induction of autoimmunity in different experimental models of human autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of ST2 deletion on the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in resistant BALB/c mice. Mice were immunized with MOG(35-55) peptide or disease was induced by passive transfer of encephalitogenic singenic cells and EAE was clinically and histologically evaluated. Expression of intracellular inflammatory cytokines, markers of activation and chemokine receptors on lymphoid tissue and CNS infiltrating mononuclear cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. We report here that deletion of ST2(-/-) molecule abrogates resistance of BALB/c mice to EAE induction based on clinical and histopathological findings. Brain and spinal cord infiltrates of ST2(-/-) mice had significantly higher number of CD4(+) T lymphocytes containing inflammatory cytokines compared to BALB/c WT mice. Adoptive transfer of ST2(-/-) primed lymphocytes induced clinical signs of the disease in ST2(-/-) as well as in WT mice. MOG(35-55) restimulated ST2(-/-) CD4(+) cells as well as ex vivo analyzed lymph node cells had higher expression of T-bet and IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF in comparison with WT CD4(+) cells. ST2(-/-) mice had higher percentages of CD4(+) cells expressing chemokine receptors important for migration to CNS in comparison with WT CD4(+) cells. Draining lymph nodes of ST2(-/-) mice contained higher percentage of CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD8(-) cells containing inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 with higher expression of activation markers. Transfer of ST2(-/-) but not WT dendritic cells induced EAE in MOG(35-55) immunized WT mice. Our results indicate that ST2 deficiency attenuates inherent resistance of BALB/c mice to EAE induction by enhancing differentiation of proinflammatory antigen presenting cells and consecutive differentiation of encephalitogenic T cells in the draining lymph node rather than affecting their action in the target tissue.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Interleukin, Dendritic cell, Lymph, Lymph vessel


Publications regarding the associations of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) G2258A and T597C polymorphisms with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) susceptibility are inconsistent. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between TLR2 G2258A and T597C polymorphisms with PTB susceptibility.

Concepts: HIV, Lung, Toll-like receptor, Antibiotic resistance, Tuberculosis, Dendritic cell, Toll-like receptors, TLR 2


Suppressed adaptive immune function is one of the major concerns responsible for the development of opportunistic infections and subsequent sepsis with high mortality in severe burns. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is the endogenous self-protective mechanism, and it plays an important role in almost every process of living by regulating the balance between homeostasis and apoptosis. The current study investigated the involvement of ERS in the pathogenesis of dysfunction of dendritic cells (DCs) in burn mice. Our results show a significant ERS response in splenic DC after burn injury. Treatment with salubrinal (Sal, reported to protect cells against ERS-induced apoptosis.) decrease the apoptotic rate of DC induced by burns, and promote maturation and activation of DC, as well as the ability to promote T cell proliferation and polarization towards Th1 immunity (all P<0.05). Gene silence of XBP-1 (key molecular in ERS response) results in the increased apoptosis and suppressed phenotypical maturation of splenic DC in burn mice. These results show that the excessive ERS is essential for immunosuppression during severe thermal injury. XBP-1 plays a pivotal role in DC functional immunomodulation in burn mice. Inhibition of apoptotic ERS response benefits mice from major burns.

Concepts: AIDS, Immune system, Gene, Bacteria, Endoplasmic reticulum, Apoptosis, Immunology, Dendritic cell


TOLL-like receptor (TLR) ligands activate both innate and adaptive immune cells, while modulating the cellular immune response. The outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meninigitidis, PorB, is a naturally occurring TLR2 ligand and functions as an adjuvant. Here, we demonstrate that PorB increases the level of OVA in the endo-/lysosomal cellular compartment of BMDCs, increases antigen presenting cell (APC) trafficking to draining lymph nodes, and enhances antigen cross-presentation. PorB is capable of mounting an antigen specific T cell response by efficiently stimulating antigen cross-presentation in vivo and in vitro assessed by BMDC OT-I cocultivation assays. The enhanced antigen cross-presentation and the increased APC recruitment to secondary lymphoid tissues expand the scope of known adjuvant effects of PorB on the immune system. Our findings lead to a better understanding of how TLR-ligand based adjuvants can alter and modulate immune responses.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Bacteria, Humoral immunity, Adaptive immune system, Antigen, Dendritic cell, Cell-mediated immunity


T cell infiltration of solid tumors is associated with favorable patient outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying variable immune responses between individuals are not well understood. One possible modulator could be the intestinal microbiota. We compared melanoma growth in mice harboring distinct commensal microbiota and observed differences in spontaneous antitumor immunity, which were eliminated upon cohousing or following fecal transfer. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing identified Bifidobacterium as associated with the antitumor effects. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium alone improved tumor control to the same degree as anti-PD-L1 therapy (checkpoint blockade), and combination treatment nearly abolished tumor outgrowth. Augmented dendritic cell function leading to enhanced CD8(+) T cell priming and accumulation in the tumor microenvironment mediated the effect. Our data suggest that manipulating the microbiota may modulate cancer immunotherapy.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Bacteria, Gut flora, Oncology, Ribosomal RNA, 30S, Dendritic cell


Lymphocytes circulate through lymph nodes (LN) in search for antigen in what is believed to be a continuous process. Here, we show that lymphocyte migration through lymph nodes and lymph occurred in a non-continuous, circadian manner. Lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes peaked at night onset, with cells leaving the tissue during the day. This resulted in strong oscillations in lymphocyte cellularity in lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic fluid. Using lineage-specific genetic ablation of circadian clock function, we demonstrated this to be dependent on rhythmic expression of promigratory factors on lymphocytes. Dendritic cell numbers peaked in phase with lymphocytes, with diurnal oscillations being present in disease severity after immunization to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). These rhythms were abolished by genetic disruption of T cell clocks, demonstrating a circadian regulation of lymphocyte migration through lymph nodes with time-of-day of immunization being critical for adaptive immune responses weeks later.

Concepts: Immune system, Lymph node, Adaptive immune system, Lymphatic system, Dendritic cell, Circadian rhythm, Lymph, Lymph vessel


Intralesional (IL) therapy is under investigation to treat dermal and subcutaneous metastatic cancer. Rose Bengal (RB) is a staining agent that was originally used by ophthalmologists and in liver function studies. IL injection of RB has been shown to induce regression of injected and uninjected tumors in murine models and clinical trials. In this study, we have shown a mechanism of tumor-specific immune response induced by IL RB. In melanoma-bearing mice, IL RB induced regression of injected tumor and inhibited the growth of bystander lesions mediated by CD8+ T cells. IL RB resulted in necrosis of tumor cells and the release of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), with increased dendritic cell (DC) infiltration into draining lymph nodes and the activation of tumor-specific T cells. Treatment of DC with tumor supernatants increased the ability of DCs to stimulate T cell proliferation, and blockade of HMGB1 in the supernatants suppressed DC activity. Additionally, increased HMGB1 levels were measured in the sera of melanoma patients treated with IL RB. These results support the role of IL RB to activate dendritic cells at the site of tumor necrosis for the induction of a systemic anti-tumor immune response.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lymph node, Tumor, Neoplasm, Dendritic cell