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Concept: Degree of a polynomial


In this study, we hypothesized that dynamics of sleep time obtained over consecutive days of extended sleep in a laboratory reflect an individual’s optimal sleep duration (OSD) and that the difference between OSD and habitual sleep duration (HSD) at home represents potential sleep debt (PSD). We found that OSD varies among individuals and PSD showed stronger correlation with subjective/objective sleepiness than actual sleep time, interacting with individual’s vulnerability of sleep loss. Furthermore, only 1 h of PSD takes four days to recover to their optimal level. Recovery from PSD was also associated with the improvement in glycometabolism, thyrotropic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Additionally, the increase (rebound) in total sleep time from HSD at the first extended sleep would be a simple indicator of PSD. These findings confirmed self-evaluating the degree of sleep debt at home as a useful clinical marker. To establish appropriate sleep habits, it is necessary to evaluate OSD, vulnerability to sleep loss, and sleep homeostasis characteristics on an individual basis.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Individual, Homeostasis, Recovery model, Degree of a polynomial, Recovery, Unihemispheric slow-wave sleep


Experiences of closeness in romantic relationships are associated with heightened levels of relational well-being and mental health. However, individuals differ in the degree of closeness they desire in their relationships. This study used the construct of inclusion of other in self (IOS) to analyze discrepancies between individuals' actual and ideal levels of closeness in their relationships and the implications of these discrepancies for relational well-being and mental health. A longitudinal survey of partnered individuals demonstrated that optimal levels of relational well-being and mental health existed when individuals had minimal discrepancies between actual and ideal IOS, regardless of their actual levels of IOS. Individuals whose actual levels of IOS moved closer to their ideal levels over a 2-year period reported improved relational well-being and mental health. Individuals with little to no discrepancies between actual and ideal IOS were also less likely to break-up with their partners over time.

Concepts: Longitudinal study, Epidemiology, Sociology, Repeated measures design, Degree of a polynomial


In patients with high-risk neuroblastoma, the reduction in primary tumor volume was measured during the early phase of induction chemotherapy as an indicator of early tumor response, and the authors investigated whether the degree of tumor volume reduction could predict outcome in these patients.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Neuroblastoma, Degree of a polynomial


Aim:  Do different clothing styles have an influence on the doctor-patient-parent relationship and which kind of outfit is preferred by children and parents. Methods:  One hundred and seven children and 72 parents were visited by a paediatrician randomly wearing one of the three different outfits (casual, semiformal, formal) during a hospital stay. Parents and children between 6 and 18 years were then interviewed about their opinion by use of a semi-structured questionnaire, while children between 0 and 6 years were observed concerning their behaviour during the examination. Results:  Using a ‘likert scale’, the casual outfit received the best mark by 95.5% of parents (58.3% in the semiformal, 30.8% in the formal group). The degree of the parents' trust in the paediatrician was comparable in all three groups. In children between 6 and 18 years, the casual dress was rated highest in 100%. In children between 0 and 6 years, the outfit had no significant influence on the patients' behaviour. Conclusion:  Apparently, parents do not only tolerate a casual outfit, but even prefer it without any loss of trust. The same holds true for children between 6 and 18 years. For younger children, the paediatricians' outfit seems to play no major role.

Concepts: Motivation, Scale, Preference, Degree of a polynomial, Likert scale, Clothing, Dress code, Casual


Electronic laboratory notebooks increase opportunities for collaboration and information exchange when compared with paper records. Depending on the degree of implementation, a laboratory- or enterprise-wide system can unify the collection, review and dissemination of data to improve laboratory efficiency and productivity. The advantages of an electronic laboratory notebook for speeding data review in bioanalysis are discussed, through the use of validated templates and organizational constructs to block errors in real-time and reduce manual audit tasks.

Concepts: Research, Degree of a polynomial, Lab notebook, Notebooks, Notebook, Electronic lab notebook, The Notebook, Inventor's notebook


This study designs a pH-sensitive nanoparticle carrier of methotrexate (MTX) and combretastatin A4 (CA4) based on pullulan for the combination therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Briefly, N-urocanyl pullulan (URPA) with the degree of substitution (DS) of 5.2% was synthesized and then conjugated with MTX to form MTX-URPA, in which MTX content was 17.8%. MTX-URPA nanoparticles prepared by the dialysis method had spherical shape and the mean size of 187.1 nm, and showed high affinity for HepG2 cells. CA4 was successfully loaded into MTX-URPA nanoparticles and exhibited pH-sensitive in vitro release property. After intravenous injection to PLC/PRF/5-bearing nude mice, CA4 loaded MTX-URPA (CA4/MTX-URPA) nanoparticles achieved the enhanced antitumor and anti-angiogenic effects, the prolonged circulation time in blood, and the increased distributions both in the liver and the tumor. In conclusion, this drug carrier system has significant liver-targeting property and exhibits advantages for the combination therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Nanoparticle, Liver, Route of administration, Sphere, Degree of a polynomial, Combretastatin A-4, Drug carrier


For athletes affected by shoulder problems, the most important expectation is to resume sporting activities. The ability to return to sport is related to several parameters, including the type and level of sport played. By focusing on these parameters, the Degree of Shoulder Involvement in Sports (DOSIS) scale allows for a better assessment of the involvement of the shoulder in sports.

Concepts: Shoulder, Degree of a polynomial, Shoulder problems, Sport


Septoplasty is a frequently performed operation by otolaryngologists to relieve nasal obstruction complaints. When objective measurements tools are not available, preoperative decision-making is based on careful clinical examination. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between type and severity of septal deviation and patient-reported nasal obstruction.

Concepts: Degree of a polynomial, Objective pronoun, Otolaryngology


Intentional food crime is plural in nature in terms of the types of crime and the differing levels of financial gain. Successful models of food crime are dependent on how well the crime has been executed and at what point, or even if, detection actually occurs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a literature review and critique the often contradictory definitions that can be found in the literature in order to compare and contrast existing food crime risk assessment tools and their application. Food safety, food defense, and food fraud risk assessments consider different criteria in order to determine the degree of situational risk for each criteria and the measures that need to be implemented to mitigate that risk. Further research is required to support the development of global countermeasures, that are of value in reducing overall risk even when the potential hazards may be largely unknown, and specific countermeasures that can act against unique risks.

Concepts: Evaluation, Risk, Assessment, Risk management, Degree of a polynomial, Hazard, Risk assessment, Finance


A few studies have shown that the degree of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) and duodenopathy (PHD) has been worsening after the introduction of therapeutic endoscopic interventions. This study aimed to determine the impact of esophageal variceal eradication by endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) on PHG and PHD using endoscopic and histopathologic assessment.

Concepts: Gastroenterology, Esophageal varices, Introduction, Degree of a polynomial, Portal hypertensive gastropathy