Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Dead Sea scrolls


Computer imaging techniques are commonly used to preserve and share readable manuscripts, but capturing writing locked away in ancient, deteriorated documents poses an entirely different challenge. This software pipeline-referred to as “virtual unwrapping”-allows textual artifacts to be read completely and noninvasively. The systematic digital analysis of the extremely fragile En-Gedi scroll (the oldest Pentateuchal scroll in Hebrew outside of the Dead Sea Scrolls) reveals the writing hidden on its untouchable, disintegrating sheets. Our approach for recovering substantial ink-based text from a damaged object results in readable columns at such high quality that serious critical textual analysis can occur. Hence, this work creates a new pathway for subsequent textual discoveries buried within the confines of damaged materials.

Concepts: Codex, Manuscript, Ein Gedi, Torah, Israel, Scroll, Dead Sea, Dead Sea scrolls


To present a case of syphilitic interstitial keratitis with Descemet’s scrolls, as well as its characteristic findings in an anterior segment investigation in relation to the histopathologic findings from a literature review.

Concepts: Dead Sea scrolls, Scroll


Since their discovery in the late 1940s, the Dead Sea Scrolls, some 900 ancient Jewish texts, have never stopped attracting the attention of scholars and the broad public alike, because they were created towards the end of the Second Temple period and the “time of Christ”. Most of the work on them has been dedicated to the information contained in the scrolls' text, leaving physical aspects of the writing materials unexamined. They are, however, crucial for both historical insight and preservation of the scrolls. Although scientific analysis requires handling, it is essential to establish the state of degradation of these valued documents. Polarized Raman Spectroscopy (PRS) is a powerful tool for obtaining information on both the composition and the level of disorder of molecular units. In this study, we developed a non-invasive and non-destructive methodology that allows a quantification of the disorder (that can be related to the degradation) of protein molecular units in collagen fibers. Not restricted to collagen, this method can be applied also to other protein-based fibrous materials such as ancient silk, wool or hair. We used PRS to quantify the degradation of the collagen fibers in a number of fragments of the Temple Scroll (11Q19a). We found that collagen fibers degrade heterogeneously, with the ones on the surface more degraded than those in the core.

Concepts: Sea, Collagen, Herod the Great, Israel, Scientific method, Dead Sea, Dead Sea scrolls


It was the aim of the Dead Sea project to change and improve traffic safety behaviour and lower the accident rates of professional drivers by applying principles and techniques known from social and traffic psychology. All interventions were based on a sample of 48 workers from one company. Extensive changes in attitudes were obtained by manipulating the workers' behaviour and causing them to publicly represent positive safety attitudes and values. The results show significant improvements in safety behaviour and reductions of accident rates. In spite of the fact that only a small minority of the workers in this plant directly participated in the programme, many others were influenced and improved their safety behaviour on the road. Therefore, the employed method seems to be not only effective but also very cost efficient.

Concepts: Traffic, Dead Sea scrolls, Geography of Israel, Jordan, Sea, Dead Sea, Better, Improve