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Concept: Daylight saving time

39

Modulators of normal bodily functions such as the duration and quality of sleep might transiently influence cardiovascular risk. The transition to daylight savings time (DST) has been associated with a short-term increased incidence ratio (IR) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present retrospective study examined the IR of AMIs that presented to our hospitals the week after DST and after the autumn switch to standard time, October 2006 to April 2012, with specific reference to the AMI type. Our study population (n = 935 patients; 59% men, 41% women) was obtained from the electronic medical records of the Royal Oak and Troy campuses of the Beaumont Hospitals in Michigan. Overall, the frequency of AMI was similar in the spring and autumn, 463 (49.5%) and 472 (50.5%), respectively. The IR for the first week after the spring shift was 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.36). After the transition from DST in the autumn, the IR for the same period was lower, but not significantly different, 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.16). Nevertheless, the greatest increase in AMI occurred on the first day (Sunday) after the spring shift to DST (1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.02; p <0.05). Also, a significantly greater incidence was found of non-ST-segment myocardial infarction after the transition to DST in the study group compared with that in the control group (p = 0.022). In conclusion, these data suggest that shifts to and from DST might transiently affect the incidence and type of acute cardiac events, albeit modestly.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Daylight saving time, Time zone, Standard time, William Willett, Mountain Time Zone

31

Obesity has reached crisis proportions in industrialized societies. Many factors converge to yield increased body mass index (BMI). Among these is sleep duration. The circadian clock controls sleep timing through the process of entrainment. Chronotype describes individual differences in sleep timing, and it is determined by genetic background, age, sex, and environment (e.g., light exposure). Social jetlag quantifies the discrepancy that often arises between circadian and social clocks, which results in chronic sleep loss. The circadian clock also regulates energy homeostasis, and its disruption-as with social jetlag-may contribute to weight-related pathologies. Here, we report the results from a large-scale epidemiological study, showing that, beyond sleep duration, social jetlag is associated with increased BMI. Our results demonstrate that living “against the clock” may be a factor contributing to the epidemic of obesity. This is of key importance in pending discussions on the implementation of Daylight Saving Time and on work or school times, which all contribute to the amount of social jetlag accrued by an individual. Our data suggest that improving the correspondence between biological and social clocks will contribute to the management of obesity.

Concepts: Time, Sleep, Body mass index, Circadian rhythm, Chronotype, Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, Daylight saving time, Time zone

30

The degree of punishment assigned to criminals is of pivotal importance for the maintenance of social order and cooperation. Nonetheless, the amount of punishment assigned to transgressors can be affected by factors other than the content of the transgressions. We propose that sleep deprivation in judges increases the severity of their sentences. We took advantage of the natural quasi-manipulation of sleep deprivation during the shift to daylight saving time in the spring and analyzed archival data from judicial punishment handed out in the U.S. federal courts. The results supported our hypothesis: Judges doled out longer sentences when they were sleep deprived.

Concepts: Sleep deprivation, Sociology, Federal government of the United States, United States federal courts, Judge, Daylight saving time

26

Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes.

Concepts: Major depressive disorder, Major depressive episode, Seasonal affective disorder, Daylight saving time

22

Transition into daylight savings time (DST) has studied negative impacts on health, but little is known regarding impact on fertility. This retrospective cohort study evaluates DST impact on pregnancy and pregnancy loss rates in 1,654 autologous in vitro fertilization cycles (2009 to 2012). Study groups were identified based on the relationship of DST to embryo transfer. Pregnancy rates were similar in Spring and Fall (41.4%, 42.2%). Pregnancy loss rates were also comparable between Spring and Fall (15.5%, 17.1%), but rates of loss were significantly higher in Spring when DST occurred after embryo transfer (24.3%). Loss was marked in patients with a history of prior spontaneous pregnancy loss (60.5%).

Concepts: Cohort study, Pregnancy, Fertility, In vitro fertilisation, Daylight saving time

18

Bills have been put forward in the UK and Republic of Ireland proposing a move to Central European Time (CET). Proponents argue that such a change will have benefits for road safety, with daylight being shifted from the morning, when collision risk is lower, to the evening, when risk is higher. Studies examining the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on road traffic collision risk can help inform the debate on the potential road safety benefits of a move to CET. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the impact of DST on collision risk.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Daylight saving time, Time zone, Central European Time, Central European Summer Time, Central Time Zone, European Summer Time

16

It has been proposed that introducing daylight saving measures could increase children’s physical activity, but there exists little research on this issue. This study therefore examined associations between time of sunset and activity levels, including using the bi-annual ‘changing of the clocks’ as a natural experiment.

Concepts: Public health, Daylight saving time

12

The main goal of the present study was to examine the effects of transition into and out of daylight saving time (DST) on the quality of the sleep/wake cycle, assessed through actigraphy. To this end, 14 healthy university students (mean age: 26.86 ± 3.25 yrs) wore an actigraph for 7 d before and 7 d after the transition out of and into DST on fall 2009 and spring 2010, respectively. The following parameters have been compared before and after the transition, separately for autumn and spring changes: bedtime (BT), get-up time (GUT), time in bed (TIB), sleep onset latency (SOL), fragmentation index (FI), sleep efficiency (SE), total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), mean activity score (MAS), and number of wake bouts (WB). After the autumn transition, a significant advance of the GUT and a decrease of TIB and TST were observed. On the contrary, spring transition led to a delay of the GUT, an increase of TIB, TST, WASO, MAS, and WB, and a decrease of SE. The present results highlight a more strong deterioration of sleep/wake cycle quality after spring compared with autumn transition, confirming that human circadian system more easily adjusts to a phase delay (autumn change) than a phase advance (spring transition).

Concepts: Sleep, Circadian rhythm, Daylight saving time

12

Daylight saving time is currently adopted in over 70 countries and imposes a twice yearly 1 h change in local clock time. Relative ease in adjustment of sleep patterns is assumed by the general population but this review suggests that the scientific data challenge a popular understanding of the clock change periods. The start of daylight saving time in the spring is thought to lead to the relatively inconsequential loss of 1 h of sleep on the night of the transition, but data suggests that increased sleep fragmentation and sleep latency present a cumulative effect of sleep loss, at least across the following week, perhaps longer. The autumn transition is often popularised as a gain of 1 h of sleep but there is little evidence of extra sleep on that night. The cumulative effect of five consecutive days of earlier rise times following the autumn change again suggests a net loss of sleep across the week. Indirect evidence of an increase in traffic accident rates, and change in health and regulatory behaviours which may be related to sleep disruption suggest that adjustment to daylight saving time is neither immediate nor without consequence.

Concepts: Time, Sleep, 2006 albums, Daylight saving time

11

To investigate whether the circadian rhythm disruption following the transition into and out of daylight saving time (DST) is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous delivery.

Concepts: Daylight saving time