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Concept: Dative case


Children and adults follow cues such as case marking and word order in their assignment of semantic roles in simple transitives (e.g., the dog chased the cat). It has been suggested that the same cues are used for the interpretation of complex sentences, such as transitive relative clauses (RCs) (e.g., that’s the dog that chased the cat) (Bates, Devescovi, & D'Amico, 1999). We used a pointing paradigm to test German-speaking 3-, 4-, and 6-year-old children’s sensitivity to case marking and word order in their interpretation of simple transitives and transitive RCs. In Experiment 1, case marking was ambiguous. The only cue available was word order. In Experiment 2, case was marked on lexical NPs or demonstrative pronouns. In Experiment 3, case was marked on lexical NPs or personal pronouns. Whereas the younger children mainly followed word order, the older children were more likely to base their interpretations on the more reliable case-marking cue. In most cases, children from both age groups were more likely to use these cues in their interpretation of simple transitives than in their interpretation of transitive RCs. Finally, children paid more attention to nominative case when it was marked on first-person personal pronouns than when it was marked on third-person lexical NPs or demonstrative pronouns, such as der Löwe ‘the-NOM lion’ or der ‘he-NOM.’ They were able to successfully integrate this case-marking cue in their sentence processing even when it appeared late in the sentence. We discuss four potential reasons for these differences across development, constructions, and lexical items. (1) Older children are relatively more sensitive to cue reliability. (2) Word order is more reliable in simple transitives than in transitive RCs. (3) The processing of case marking might initially be item-specific. (4) The processing of case marking might depend on its saliency and position in the sentence.

Concepts: Subject, English language, German language, Grammatical case, Nominative case, Accusative case, Dative case, Personal pronoun


OBJECTIVE. To determine how safe-patient-handling (SPH) equipment is used in rehabilitation and how it affects therapists, patients, and therapy practice. METHOD. We used a qualitative, instrumental case study design. Thirty-five occupational and physical therapist practitioners from three facilities participated in the study. RESULTS. Therapists reported a broad range of applications for equipment (e.g., functional mobility and neuromusculoskeletal function). They reported that SPH equipment increased treatment options for therapists and increased participation options for patients, although equipment limitations exist. Three themes emerged from the analysis: choice, potential, and safety. CONCLUSION. SPH equipment has therapeutic applications in rehabilitation, especially for medically complex or bariatric patients. Therapists in this study engaged in a highly individualized, complex process of decision making when selecting and using SPH devices in rehabilitation. More research to refine and test therapeutic uses is necessary.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, Therapy, Decision theory, Decision making software, Qualitative research, Case study, Dative case


Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome) in a severe cutaneous drug reaction, which can be life threatening. Levofloxacin has not been reported in literature as a causative drug. We are presenting an exceptional case of levofloxacin-induced DRESS without eosinophilia and with positive patch-tests to levofloxacin.

Concepts: Linguistics, Dative case, Eosinophilia, DRESS syndrome


Adoption, adaptation, scale-up, spread, and sustainability are ill-defined, undertheorised, and little-researched implementation science concepts. An instrumental case study will track the adoption and adaptation, or not, of a locally developed innovation about dysphagia as a patient safety issue. The case study will examine a conceptual framework with a continuum of spread comprising hierarchical control or ‘making it happen,’ participatory adaptation or ‘help it happen,’ and facilitated evolution or ‘let it happen.’ METHODS: This case study is a prospective, longitudinal design using mixed methods. The fifteen-month (October 2012 to December 2013) instrumental case study is set in large, healthcare organisation in England. The innovation refers to introducing a nationally recognised, inter-disciplinary dysphagia competency framework to guide workforce development about fundamental aspects of care. Adoption and adaptation will be examined at an organisational level and along two, contrasting care pathways: stroke and fractured neck of femur. A number of educational interventions will be deployed, including training a cadre of trainers to cascade the essentials of dysphagia management and developing a Dysphagia Toolkit as a learning resource. Mixed methods will be used to investigate scale-up, spread, and sustainability in acute and community settings. A purposive sample of senior managers and clinical leaders will be interviewed to identify path dependency or the context specific particularities of implementation. A pre- and post-evaluation, using mealtime observations and a survey, will investigate the learning effect on staff adherence to patient specific dysphagia recommendations and attitudes towards dysphagia, respectively. Official documents and an ethnographic field journal allow critical junctures, temporal aspects and confounding factors to be explored.

Concepts: Evaluation methods, Management, Case study, Concept, Sanskrit, Grammatical case, Dative case, Ablative case


Chromhidrosis is a rare condition of which there are only a few case reports in the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, laboratory, and possible environmental factors in 13 patients with chromhidrosis to elucidate causative agents.

Concepts: Diseases and disorders, Environment, Heavy metal music, Heavy metal, Tungsten, Causative, Dative case


Acute or subacute interstitial lung diseases from autoimmune origins are especially hard to diagnose but have to be detected promptly. We illustrate this necessity with three case reports. One case of paraneoplasic polymyositis, one case of interstitial lung disease caused by a connectivite and one case of interstitial lung disease related to an anti-synthetase syndrome. The subject is to alert the practitioners to the early search of extra pulmonary signs, autoantibodies analysis in the objective to set up quickly the right treatment.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Diseases and disorders, Pulmonology, Medical terms, Object, Interstitial lung disease, Dative case


This study investigates the comprehension of wh-questions in individuals with aphasia (IWA) speaking Turkish, a non-wh-movement language, and German, a wh-movement language. We examined six German-speaking and 11 Turkish-speaking IWA using picture-pointing tasks. Findings from our experiments show that the Turkish IWA responded more accurately to both object who and object which questions than to subject questions, while the German IWA performed better for subject which questions than in all other conditions. Using random forest models, a machine learning technique used in tree-structured classification, on the individual data revealed that both the Turkish and German IWA’s response accuracy is largely predicted by the presence of overt and unambiguous case marking. We discuss our results with regard to different theoretical approaches to the comprehension of wh-questions in aphasia.

Concepts: Scientific method, Machine learning, Object, German language, Grammatical case, Genitive case, Accusative case, Dative case


Australia experiences high breastfeeding initiation but low duration rates. UNICEF introduced the global breastfeeding strategy, the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, to Australia in 1992, transferring governance to the Australian College of Midwives (ACM) in 1995. In 2017 23% of facilities were registered as ‘baby-friendly’ accredited.

Concepts: Breastfeeding, Case study, Australia, Introduction, Sanskrit, The Australian, Dative case, Ablative case


This study employed a paired priming paradigm to ask whether input features influence a child’s propensity to use non-nominative versus nominative case in subject position, and to use non-nominative forms even when verbs are marked for agreement. Thirty English-speaking children (ages 2;6 to 3;7) heard sentences with pronouns that had non-contrasting case forms (e.g. Dad hugs it and it hugs Tigger) and it was hypothesized that these forms would lead to more errors (e.g. Him hugs Barney) in an elicited phrase more often than if the children heard contrasting case forms (e.g. Dad hugs us and we hug the doggie). Tense/agreement features were also examined in children’s elicited productions. The findings were consistent with predictions, and supported the input ambiguity hypothesis of Pelham (2011). Implications for current accounts of the optional infinitive stage are discussed.

Concepts: Scientific method, Epistemology, Subject, English language, Inflection, Nominative case, Accusative case, Dative case


The objective of this study is to determine the role of ne needle aspiration microbiology (FNAM) in detecting the causative organisms of postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) in comparison with the standard technique of surface swabbing. Ma- terials and Methods. In this study, 150 patients with SSIs following elective and emergency operations were included. In all patients, FNAM was performed along with conventional surface swabbing to identify the causative microorganism. Sensitivity of surface swab and FNAM was calculated as the number of samples collected from the diagnosed case of SSI.

Concepts: Bacteria, Virus, Surgery, Needle aspiration biopsy, Microorganism, Louis Pasteur, Sanskrit, Dative case