Little is known about the effect of serving temperature on saltiness perception in food products such as soups that are typically consumed at high temperature. This study focused on determining whether serving temperature modulates saltiness perception in soup-base products. Eight trained panelists and 62 untrained consumers were asked to rate saltiness intensities in salt water, chicken broth, and miso soup, with serving temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C. Neither trained nor untrained panelists were able to find significant difference in the saltiness intensity among salt water samples served at these five different temperatures. However, untrained consumers (but not trained panelists) rated chicken broth and miso soup to be significantly saltier when served at 70 and/or 80 °C compared to when served at 40 to 60 °C. There was an interaction between temperature-related perceived saltiness and preference; for example, consumers who preferred soups served at lower temperatures found soups served at higher temperatures to be less salty. Consumers who frequently consumed hot dishes rated soup samples served at 60 °C as saltier than consumers who consumed hot dishes less frequently. This study demonstrates that soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits are influential factors affecting saltiness perception of soup.
Katsuodashi, a dried bonito broth, is very basic and indispensable in Japanese cuisine and contains taste-exhibiting components and unique aroma. We previously reported that its unique aroma contributes to the preference and reinforcement effect associated with dried bonito. This study aims to elucidate the contribution of aromatic components in Katsuobushi to preference formation and reinforcement effect. Volatile components obtained from dried bonito were fractionated and the fractions were subjected to two-bottle choice test. The fractionation test suggested that the component responsible for the preference is not one but comprises multiple components. In the GC-MS analysis/reconstruction test, solution with aromatic flavor narrowed down to 125 compounds had preference, and also had reinforcement effect. Moreover, GC-MS-olfactometry analysis narrowed down the candidate components to 28 out of 125. Mice showed preference for the test solution with aromatic flavor reconstructed with 28 components but did not show reinforcement behavior.