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Concept: Das Model

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Aberrant repetitive behaviors are commonly observed in a variety of neurodevelopmental, neurological, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the specific neurobiological mechanisms that underlie such behaviors, however, and effective treatments are lacking. Valid animal models can aid substantially in identifying pathophysiological factors mediating aberrant repetitive behavior and aid in treatment development. The C58 inbred mouse strain is a particularly promising model, and we have further characterized its repetitive behavior phenotype. Compared to C57BL/6 mice, C58 mice exhibit high rates of spontaneous hindlimb jumping and backward somersaulting reaching adult frequencies by 5 weeks post-weaning and adult temporal organization by 2 weeks post-weaning. The development of repetitive behavior in C58 mice was markedly attenuated by rearing these mice in larger, more complex environments. In addition to characterizing repetitive motor behavior, we also assessed related forms of inflexible behavior that reflect restricted and perseverative responding. Contrary to our hypothesis, C58 mice did not exhibit increased marble burying nor did they display reduced exploratory behavior in the holeboard task. The C58 strain appears to be a very useful model for the repetitive motor behavior characteristic of a number of clinical disorders. As an inbred mouse strain, studies using the C58 model can take full advantage of the tool kit of modern genetics and molecular neuroscience. This technical advantage makes the model a compelling choice for use in studies designed to elucidate the etiology and pathophysiology of aberrant repetitive behavior. Such findings should, in turn, translate into effective new treatments.

Concepts: Das Model, Developmental psychology, Human behavior, Psychiatry, Gene, Developmental biology, Psychology, Neuroscience

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We report the first experimental results on the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of monolayer graphene. The monolayer CVD graphene has an average SE value of 2.27 dB, corresponding to ∼40% shielding of incident waves. CVD graphene shows more than seven times (in terms of dB) greater SE than gold film. The dominant mechanism is absorption rather than reflection, and the portion of absorption decreases with an increase in the number of graphene layers. Our modeling work shows that plane-wave theory for metal shielding is also applicable to graphene. The model predicts that ideal monolayer graphene can shield as much as 97.8% of EMI. This suggests the feasibility of manufacturing an ultrathin, transparent, and flexible EMI shield by single or few-layer graphene.

Concepts: Model theory, Das Model, Model, Diffraction, Photon, Electromagnetic radiation, Wave, Electromagnetic interference

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We examined the sociocultural model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitude development in young girls for the first time. According to the model, internalizing an unrealistically thin ideal body increases the risk of disordered eating via body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and depression. Girls aged 7-11 years (N=127) completed measures of thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, depression, and disordered eating attitudes. Participants' height and weight were measured and their body mass index calculated. Thin-ideal internalization predicted disordered eating attitudes indirectly via body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and depression; it also predicted disordered eating attitudes directly. Path analyses showed that a revised sociocultural model fit well with the data. These data show that a sociocultural framework for understanding disordered eating and body dissatisfaction in adults is useful, with minor modifications, in understanding the development of related attitudes in young girls.

Concepts: Body weight, Internalization, Das Model, Death, Obesity, Body mass index, Mass, Nutrition

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Although forest succession has traditionally been approached as a deterministic process, successional trajectories of vegetation change vary widely, even among nearby stands with similar environmental conditions and disturbance histories. Here, we provide the first attempt, to our knowledge, to quantify predictability and uncertainty during succession based on the most extensive long-term datasets ever assembled for Neotropical forests. We develop a novel approach that integrates deterministic and stochastic components into different candidate models describing the dynamical interactions among three widely used and interrelated forest attributes-stem density, basal area, and species density. Within each of the seven study sites, successional trajectories were highly idiosyncratic, even when controlling for prior land use, environment, and initial conditions in these attributes. Plot factors were far more important than stand age in explaining successional trajectories. For each site, the best-fit model was able to capture the complete set of time series in certain attributes only when both the deterministic and stochastic components were set to similar magnitudes. Surprisingly, predictability of stem density, basal area, and species density did not show consistent trends across attributes, study sites, or land use history, and was independent of plot size and time series length. The model developed here represents the best approach, to date, for characterizing autogenic successional dynamics and demonstrates the low predictability of successional trajectories. These high levels of uncertainty suggest that the impacts of allogenic factors on rates of change during tropical forest succession are far more pervasive than previously thought, challenging the way ecologists view and investigate forest regeneration.

Concepts: Das Model, Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, Uncertainty, Tropical rainforest, Vegetation, Forest, Ecological succession

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Some common challenges of biomedical product translation-scientific, regulatory, adoption, and reimbursement-can best be addressed by the broad sharing of resources or tools. But, such aids remain undeveloped because the undertaking requires expertise from multiple research sectors as well as validation across organizations. Biomedical resource development can benefit from directed consortia-a partnership framework that provides neutral and temporary collaborative environments for several, oftentimes competing, organizations and leverages the aggregated intellect and resources of stakeholders so as to create versatile solutions. By analyzing 369 biomedical research consortia, we tracked consortia growth around the world and gained insight into how this partnership model advances biomedical research. Our analyses suggest that research-by-consortium provides benefit to biomedical science, but the model needs further optimization before it can be fully integrated into the biomedical research pipeline.

Concepts: Consortium, Das Model, Critical thinking, Animal testing, Logic, Scientific method, Biomedical scientist, Medical research

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We previously developed a model for projection of heat-related mortality attributable to climate change. The objective of this paper is to improve the fit and precision of and examine the robustness of the model.

Concepts: Das Model, Actuarial science

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Aim: The purpose of this paper is to examine how well research findings on dyspareunia (intercourse pain) fit the fear-avoidance (FA) model on pain. Results: The evidence suggests that the experience of pain in dyspareunia functions similarly to the pain reported in other pain conditions. There are also accumulating data showing that the central mechanisms of the FA model, such as catastrophizing, fear, hypervigilance and disability, are central to the experience of sexual pain. However, there are also some potential differences between sexual pain and other pain conditions that demand further attention in terms of the role of the partner, specific emotional consequences of avoidance and the effect of hypervigilance on sexual arousal. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the relevance of the FA model in sexual pain. They also imply that treatment methods for fear and avoidance in other pain conditions offer new avenues for treating sexual pain problems in the clinic. Future studies should focus on expanding how the mechanisms in the FA model contribute to sexual pain, as well as how treatments based on the model may be applied clinically.

Concepts: Anxiety disorder, Psychology, Sexual arousal, The Football Association, Neuroscience, The Central, Das Model, Sexual intercourse

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Most of Israel’s waste is disposed in landfills, threatening scarce land resources and posing environmental and health risks. The aim of this study is to estimate the expected costs of transferring municipalities to solid waste source separation in Israel, aimed at reducing the amount of waste directed to landfills and increasing the efficiency and amount of recycled waste. Information on the expected costs of operating a solid waste source separation system was gathered from 47 municipalities and compiled onto a database, taking into consideration various factors such as costs of equipment, construction adjustments and waste collection and disposal. This database may serve as a model for estimating the costs of entering the waste source separation system for any municipality in Israel, while taking into consideration its specific characteristics, such as size and region. The model was used in Israel for determining municipalities' eligibility to receive a governmental grant for entering an accelerated process of solid waste source separation. This study displays a user-friendly and simple operational tool for assessing municipalities' costs of entering a process of waste source separation, providing policy makers a powerful tool for diverting funds effectively in promoting solid waste source separation.

Concepts: Das Model, Municipality, Policy, Waste picker, Estimator, Recycling, Waste, Waste management

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OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific status of the biopsychosocial (BPS) model and to propose a way to improve it. DISCUSSION: Engel’s BPS model added patients' psychological and social health concerns to the highly successful biomedical model. He proposed that the BPS model could make medicine more scientific, but its use in education, clinical care, and, especially, research remains minimal. Many aver correctly that the present model cannot be defined in a consistent way for the individual patient, making it untestable and non-scientific. This stems from not obtaining relevant BPS data systematically, where one interviewer obtains the same information another would. Recent research by two of the authors has produced similar patient-centered interviewing methods that are repeatable and elicit just the relevant patient information needed to define the model at each visit. We propose that the field adopt these evidence-based methods as the standard for identifying the BPS model. CONCLUSION: Identifying a scientific BPS model in each patient with an agreed-upon, evidence-based patient-centered interviewing method can produce a quantum leap ahead in both research and teaching. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: A scientific BPS model can give us more confidence in being humanistic. In research, we can conduct more rigorous studies to inform better practices.

Concepts: Interview, Das Model, Best practice, Scientific method, Medical models, Psychiatry, Biomedical model, Biopsychosocial model

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Transcultural nursing educators can be change agents for health issues in other cultures. Yet unfamiliar disease processes and the foreign environment provide challenges that must be overcome to achieve a lasting, effective, and positive change. Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovations Model can be used to plan and implement community-focused interventions into the cultures of developing nations, specifically malaria prevention in Zambia. Transcultural nurse educators could use concepts from the model to effect change in other cultures or communities.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Das Model, Policy, Nursing, Diffusion of innovations, United Nations, Anthropology, Innovation