Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Damping


The newly proposed in-plane resonant nano-electro-mechanical (IP R-NEM) sensor, that includes a doubly clamped suspended beam and two side electrodes, achieved a mass sensitivity of less than zepto g/Hz based on analytical and numerical analyses. The high frequency characterization and numerical/analytical studies of the fabricated sensor show that the high vacuum measurement environment will ease the resonance detection using the capacitance detection technique if only the thermoelsatic damping plays a dominant role for the total quality factor of the sensor. The usage of the intrinsic junction-less field-effect-transistor (JL FET) for the resonance detection of the sensor provides a more practical detection method for this sensor. As the second proposed sensor, the introduction of the monolithically integrated in-plane MOSFET with the suspended beam provides another solution for the ease of resonance frequency detection with similar operation to the junction-less transistor in the IP R-NEM sensor. The challenging fabrication technology for the in-plane resonant suspended gate field-effect-transistor (IP RSG-FET) sensor results in some post processing and simulation steps to fully explore and improve the direct current (DC) characteristics of the sensor for the consequent high frequency measurement. The results of modeling and characterization in this research provide a realistic guideline for these potential ultra-sensitive NEM sensors.

Concepts: Transistor, Resonance, Harmonic oscillator, Optical cavity, Electronics terms, Damping, RLC circuit, Q factor


There is evidence that vibrations of soft tissue compartments are not appropriately described by a single sinusoidal oscillation for certain types of locomotion such as running or sprinting. This paper discusses a new method to quantify damping of superimposed oscillations using a wavelet-based time-frequency approach. This wavelet-based method was applied to experimental data in order to analyze the decay of the overall power of vibration signals over time. Eight healthy subjects performed sprinting trials on a 30m runway on a hard surface and a soft surface. Soft tissue vibrations were quantified from the tissue overlaying the muscle belly of the medial gastrocnemius muscle. The new methodology determines damping coefficients with an average error of 2.2% based on a wavelet scaling factor of 0.7. This was sufficient to detect differences in soft tissue compartment damping between the hard and soft surface. On average, the hard surface elicited a 7.02s(-1) lower damping coefficient than the soft surface (p<0.05). A power spectral analysis of the muscular vibrations occurring during sprinting confirmed that vibrations during dynamic movements cannot be represented by a single sinusoidal function. Compared to the traditional sinusoidal approach, this newly developed method can quantify vibration damping for systems with multiple vibration modes that interfere with one another. This new time-frequency analysis may be more appropriate when an acceleration trace does not follow a sinusoidal function, as is the case with multiple forms of human locomotion.

Concepts: Muscle, Tissues, Wave, Vibration, Harmonic oscillator, Simple harmonic motion, Damping, Mechanical vibrations


There are a number of applications for microstructure devices consisting of a regular pattern of perforations, and many of these utilize fluid damping. For the analysis of viscous damping and for calculating the spring force in some cases, it is possible to take advantage of the regular hole pattern by assuming periodicity. Here a model is developed to determine these quantities based on the solution of the Stokes' equations for the air flow. Viscous damping is directly related to thermal-mechanical noise. As a result, the design of perforated microstructures with minimal viscous damping is of real practical importance. A method is developed to calculate the damping coefficient in microstructures with periodic perforations. The result can be used to minimize squeeze film damping. Since micromachined devices have finite dimensions, the periodic model for the perforated microstructure has to be associated with the calculation of some frame (edge) corrections. Analysis of the edge corrections has also been performed. Results from analytical formulas and numerical simulations match very well with published measured data.

Concepts: Algorithm, Mathematics, Force, Calculation, Damping


A novel square-plate piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor operated in two orthogonal first bending vibration modes (B(1)) is proposed. The piezoelectric vibrator of the linear motor is simply made of a single PZT ceramic plate (sizes: 15 x 15 x 2 mm) and poled in its thickness direction. The top surface electrode of the square ceramic plate was divided into four active areas along its two diagonal lines for exciting two orthogonal B(1) modes. The achieved driving force and speed from the linear motor are 1.8 N and 230 mm/s, respectively, under one pair orthogonal voltage drive of 150 V(p-p) at the resonance frequency of 92 kHz. The proposed linear motor has advantages over conventional ultrasonic linear motors, such as relatively larger driving force, very simple working mode and structure, and low fabrication cost.

Concepts: Wave, Frequency, Sound, Resonance, Vibration, Piezoelectricity, Damping, Mechanical resonance


Flies use so-called halteres to sense body rotation based on Coriolis forces for supporting equilibrium reflexes. Inspired by these halteres, a biomimetic gimbal-suspended gyroscope has been developed using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Design rules for this type of gyroscope are derived, in which the haltere-inspired MEMS gyroscope is geared towards a large measurement bandwidth and a fast response, rather than towards a high responsivity. Measurements for the biomimetic gyroscope indicate a (drive mode) resonance frequency of about 550 Hz and a damping ratio of 0.9. Further, the theoretical performance of the fly’s gyroscopic system and the developed MEMS haltere-based gyroscope is assessed and the potential of this MEMS gyroscope is discussed.

Concepts: Microelectromechanical systems, Resonance, Harmonic oscillator, Coriolis effect, Electronics terms, Damping, Halteres, Vibrating structure gyroscope


Pressure-transducer kits have frequency characteristics such as natural frequency and damping coefficient, which affect the monitoring accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of planecta ports and a damping device (ROSE™, Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) on the frequency characteristics of pressure-transducer kits. The FloTrac sensor kit (Edwards Lifesciences, CA, USA) and the DTXplus transducer kit (Argon Medical Devices) were prepared with planecta ports, and their frequency characteristics were tested with or without ROSE™. The natural frequency and damping coefficient of each kit were obtained using frequency characteristics analysis software and evaluated by plotting them on the Gardner’s chart. By inserting a planecta port, the natural frequency markedly decreased in both the FloTrac sensor kit (from 40 to 22 Hz) and the DTXplus transducer kit (from 35 to 22 Hz). In both kits with one planecta port, the damping coefficient markedly increased by insertion of ROSE™ from 0.2 to 0.5, optimising frequency characteristics. In both kits with two planecta ports, however, the natural frequency decreased from 22 to 12 Hz. The damping coefficient increased from 0.2 to 0.8 by insertion of ROSE™; however, optimisation was not achieved even by ROSE™ insertion. Planecta ports decrease the natural frequency of the kit. ROSE™ is useful to optimise the frequency characteristics in the kits without or with one planecta port. However, optimisation is difficult with two or more planecta ports, even with the ROSE™ device.

Concepts: Device, Resonance, Vibration, Damping, Edwards Lifesciences


Cold temperatures lead to nullification of circadian rhythms in many organisms. Two typical scenarios explain the disappearance of rhythmicity: the first is oscillation death, which is the transition from self-sustained oscillation to damped oscillation that occurs at a critical temperature. The second scenario is oscillation arrest, in which oscillation terminates at a certain phase. In the field of nonlinear dynamics, these mechanisms are called the Hopf bifurcation and the saddle-node on an invariant circle bifurcation, respectively. Although these mechanisms lead to distinct dynamical properties near the critical temperature, it is unclear to which scenario the circadian clock belongs. Here we reduced the temperature to dampen the reconstituted circadian rhythm of phosphorylation of the recombinant cyanobacterial clock protein KaiC. The data led us to conclude that Hopf bifurcation occurred at ∼19 °C. Below this critical temperature, the self-sustained rhythms of KaiC phosphorylation transformed to damped oscillations, which are predicted by the Hopf bifurcation theory. Moreover, we detected resonant oscillations below the critical temperature when temperature was periodically varied, which was reproduced by numerical simulations. Our findings suggest that the transition to a damped oscillation through Hopf bifurcation contributes to maintaining the circadian rhythm of cyanobacteria through resonance at cold temperatures.

Concepts: Temperature, Oscillation, Circadian rhythm, Bifurcation theory, Cold, Harmonic oscillator, Damping, Bacterial circadian rhythms


A historical introduction is given of the theory of normal forms for simplifying nonlinear dynamical systems close to resonances or bifurcation points. The specific focus is on mechanical vibration problems, described by finite degree-of-freedom second-order-in-time differential equations. A recent variant of the normal form method, that respects the specific structure of such models, is recalled. It is shown how this method can be placed within the context of the general theory of normal forms provided the damping and forcing terms are treated as unfolding parameters. The approach is contrasted to the alternative theory of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) which is argued to be problematic in the presence of damping. The efficacy of the normal form method is illustrated on a model of the vibration of a taut cable, which is geometrically nonlinear. It is shown how the method is able to accurately predict NNM shapes and their bifurcations.

Concepts: Mathematics, Wave, Vibration, Mode shape, Damping, Mechanical resonance, Mechanical vibrations


It has been shown that the compaction of granular materials for applications such as pharmaceutical tableting and plastic moulding can be enhanced by ultrasonic vibration of the compaction die. Ultrasonic vibrations can reduce the compaction pressure and increase particle fusion, leading to higher strength products. In this paper, the potential benefits of ultrasonics in the compaction of geological granular materials in downhole applications are explored, to gain insight into the effects of ultrasonic vibrations on compaction of different materials commonly encountered in sub-sea drilling. Ultrasonic vibrations are applied, using a resonant 20kHz compactor, to the compaction of loose sand and drill waste cuttings derived from oolitic limestone, clean quartz sandstone, and slate-phyllite. For each material, a higher strain for a given compaction pressure was achieved, with higher sample density compared to that in the case of an absence of ultrasonics. The relationships between the operational parameters of ultrasonic vibration amplitude and true strain rate are explored and shown to be dependent on the physical characteristics of the compacting materials.

Concepts: Sedimentary rock, Wave, Materials science, Sandstone, Solid mechanics, Sand, Damping, Mechanical resonance


It is important for companies to increase the efficiency of drilling as well as prolong the lifetime of the drilling tool. Since some previous investigations indicated that a superposition of well drilling with an additional vibration increases the drilling efficiency, this paper introduces a novel well drill which is assisted with additional vibrations by means of piezoelectric sandwich bending vibration transducer. The proposed drill uses bending vibrations in two different directions to from an elliptical trajectory movement, which can help the drill to break the surface of hard material more efficiently and clean away the lithic fragments more easily. The proposed well drill with bending vibration transducer is designed to have a resonance frequency of the first bending vibration mode of about 1779 Hz. The motion equation of the particle on the edge of the drill bit is developed and analyzed. The vibration trajectory of the particle on the edge of the drill bit is calculated by using finite element method. A prototype of the proposed drill using bending vibrations is fabricated and tested to verify the aim of drilling efficiency increase. The feed speed of the vibration assisted drilling is tested to be about 0.296 mm/s when the excitation voltage of the transducer is 300 V, while this speed decreases to about 0.195 mm/s when no vibration is added. This comparison shows that the feed speed of the vibration assisted drilling is about 52% higher than that of the normal drilling, which means the proposed drill has a better efficiency and it is important to consider vibration superimposition in well drilling. In addition, the surface of the drill hole gained by the vibration assisted drilling is smoother than that of the normal drilling, which makes the clearance easier.

Concepts: Finite element method, Wave, Drill, Vibration, Projectile, Mode shape, Damping, Mechanical resonance