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Concept: Dammam

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Purpose: The impact of the BRCA1-3’UTR-variant on BRCA1 gene expression and altered responses to external stimuli was previously tested in vitro using a luciferase reporter assay. Its ability to predict breast cancer risk in women was also assessed but the conclusions were inconsistent. The present study concerns the relationship between the BRCA1-3’UTR germline variant rs8176318G>T and susceptibility to Breast cancer in an ethnic population of Saudi Arabia. Methodology: The study included 100 breast cancer patients and 100 sex matched healthy controls from the northwestern region (Tabuk) and Dammam of Saudi Arabia were investigated for the BRCA1-3’UTR germline variant rs8176318G>T using an allele specific PCR technique. Genotype distributions were then compared. Results: The frequencies of the three genotypes GG, TT and GT in our Saudi Arabian patients were 26%, 8% and 66% and in healthy controls were 45%, 5% and 50%, respectively (p=0.03). Risk of developing breast cancer was found to be significantly associated with the GT variant (OR 2.28, 1.24-4.191; RR 1.47, 1.11-1.93; P=0.007), GT+TT (OR, 2.32, 1.28-4.22; RR 1.48, 1.13-1.94; P=0.005) and the T allele (OR 1.62 , 1.072- 2.45; RR 1.28, 1.02-1.60: P=0.020). There were 2.76 and 2.28 fold increase risks of developing breast cancer associated with the TT and GT genotypes in our cases. A significant correlation was also found between the BRCA1 3’UTR variants with the stage of the disease and distant metastasis but not with age, grade, and ER, PR and her2/neu status. Conclusion : The rs8176318G/T in the 3’untranslated region (UTR) of the BRCA1 gene was found to be associatedwith increased susceptibility to breast cancer in our study population, increased risk being noted with the GT and TT genotypes. Further association studies are needed to confirm this finding in other regions of Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Gene, Genetics, Cancer, Breast cancer, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Dammam

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This paper aims to evaluate the authorship, privacy capabilities and functions of QuadraMed and BestCare systems, implemented at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A survey was conducted by interviewing back-end users of the EMR system in the KAMC hospital to check the aforementioned systems' authorship capabilities. Both the systems scored the same, with the overall result being 146/165 including the compliance level, which represents 88% availability of all authorship functions. The Quadra system’s non-complying item was identified for only one entity, which is related to the lack of diagnosis documentation. It does not aid physicians in enhancing their ability to document diagnosis, which depends on coding and has not been implemented within the system so far. However, BestCare system provides documenting diagnosis depending on the coding part rather than free text, suggesting it is a promising system with enhanced functionalities.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, United Arab Emirates, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam

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To investigate asthma prevalence and to measure asthma symptoms among Saudi adults in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam, King Saud University

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This study assessed the influence of cultural changes (known as acculturation) on pathways of fear and anxiety in Endodontics. A purposive sampling technique identified patients of Saudi Arabian descent living in Australia and Saudi Arabia. Only patients with root canal fillings (or treatment planned for endodontic treatment) were included. Patients with intellectual disabilities, surgical root therapy, and aged under 20 were excluded. Consenting patients attending the dental clinics of University of Griffith University, Australia and University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia completed the “My Endodontic Fear Questionnaire.” Three hundred and twenty-four patients (21-75 years) were included, 90% of participants reported more than one pathway. Australian Saudi Arabians mainly utilised vicarious pathway (94.9%), whilst Saudi Arabians utilised the verbal threat (93.5%) and parental pathway (78.3%). This study highlights the possible role of acculturation on the perception of fear and anxiety in Endodontics; however, further research with other ethnic groups is essential to enhance our understanding.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, United Arab Emirates, Endodontics, Jordan, Iraq, Dammam

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This study assessed the association between caries preventive measures including regular dental checkups, twice a day tooth brushing using fluoridated toothpaste and pit and fissure sealants on one side and the presence of caries among primary schoolchildren in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Oral hygiene, Fluoride therapy, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Al-Hasa, Dammam, Ras Tanura

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Child restraint system (CRS) is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC). However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Petroleum, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam

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To determine the prevalence of dental erosion and its association to commonly used beverages and snacks among 3 to 5 year old preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam, King Saud University

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Well-being is an essential measure that contributes to the evaluation of the health and quality of life of populations. In 1948, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as physical, mental and social well-being. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between July and September 2015. Women aged 18 years old and above were invited to participate in the study. The data were collected using the WHO’s Well-Being Index questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors that are significantly associated with well-being. A total of 900 women completed the survey. Approximately 58% of the women reported moderate to high (≥50) score of well-being, whereas 41.7% reported ill-being/likely depression. Experiencing violence, living in unfavorable physical conditions and reporting morbidities were shown to be significantly associated with low levels of subjective well-being (ill-being) (p < 0.0001). Our study revealed a significant percentage of low levels of well-being among women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and identified the factors associated with them. Further research in this domain is recommended to better investigate additional causes of the low levels of well-being hence help in planning and guiding necessary interventions.

Concepts: Quality of life, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam

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The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status among juvenile prisoners in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Dental caries, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam

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The present study analyzed the characteristics of malocclusions, occlusal traits among Special Health care Needs (SHCN) children with Down syndrome (DS) and autism disorder (AD) in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Mecca, Jeddah, Ha'il, Dammam