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Concept: Damage


Neural interface systems are becoming increasingly more feasible for brain repair strategies. This paper tests the hypothesis that recovery after brain injury can be facilitated by a neural prosthesis serving as a communication link between distant locations in the cerebral cortex. The primary motor area in the cerebral cortex was injured in a rat model of focal brain injury, disrupting communication between motor and somatosensory areas and resulting in impaired reaching and grasping abilities. After implantation of microelectrodes in cerebral cortex, a neural prosthesis discriminated action potentials (spikes) in premotor cortex that triggered electrical stimulation in somatosensory cortex continuously over subsequent weeks. Within 1 wk, while receiving spike-triggered stimulation, rats showed substantially improved reaching and grasping functions that were indistinguishable from prelesion levels by 2 wk. Post hoc analysis of the spikes evoked by the stimulation provides compelling evidence that the neural prosthesis enhanced functional connectivity between the two target areas. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that neural interface systems can be used effectively to bridge damaged neural pathways functionally and promote recovery after brain injury.

Concepts: Neuron, Brain, Cerebral cortex, Cerebrum, Premotor cortex, Motor cortex, Primary motor cortex, Damage


Traumatic peripheral nerve damage is a major medical problem without effective treatment options. In repurposing studies on 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a potassium channel blocker that provides symptomatic relief in some chronic neurological afflictions, we discovered this agent offers significant promise as a small molecule regenerative agent for acute traumatic nerve injury. We found, in a mouse model of sciatic crush injury, that sustained early 4-AP administration increased the speed and extent of behavioral recovery too rapidly to be explained by axonal regeneration. Further studies demonstrated that 4-AP also enhanced recovery of nerve conduction velocity, promoted remyelination, and increased axonal area post-injury. We additionally found that 4-AP treatment enables distinction between incomplete and complete lesions more rapidly than existing approaches, thereby potentially addressing the critical challenge of more effectively distinguishing injured individuals who may require mutually exclusive treatment approaches. Thus, 4-AP singularly provides both a new potential therapy to promote durable recovery and remyelination in acute peripheral nerve injury and a means of identifying lesions in which this therapy would be most likely to be of value.

Concepts: Neuroanatomy, Action potential, Neurology, Nerve, Potassium channel, 4-Aminopyridine, Nerve conduction study, Damage


Electrical burns are uncommon, but they result in high morbidity and mortality due to severe tissue damage. The purpose of this study is to analyze epidemiological variables of electrical injuries and identify preventable measures through them.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Injuries, Injury, Alternating current, Burn, Voltage, Damage, Electrical safety


Modern dental implants present surface features of distinct dimensions that can be damaged during the insertion procedure into bone.

Concepts: Implants, Modern history, Dental implant, Dentistry, Damage


Blindness and visual impairments are heavy loads for modern society. Visual prosthesis is a promising therapy to treat these diseases. However, electric stimulation (ES) induced damage of the optic nerve and adjacent cells are problems that must not be overlooked. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ES on cultured microglia cells and the potential protective mechanisms from a natural compound Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). Cellular injuries were induced by 9 mA bipolar pulse current in BV-2 cells for 15 min. Treatment with LBP alone, or in association with either autophagic inhibitor 3-MA or autophagic agonist rapamycin was pre-added for 2 h before the ES challenge. After that, morphological and molecular changes of the cells were measured at 2 h or 6 h post challenges. We found that ES induced evident morphological and pathological changes of BV-2 cells, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Pre-treatment with LBP significantly attenuated these injuries with enhanced endogenous autophagy. When cellular autophagy was inhibited or enhanced by corresponding drug, the protective properties of LBP were partly inhibited or maintained, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated that ERK and p38 MAPK exerted diversified roles in the protection of LBP against ES-induced cellular damages. In conclusion, LBP improves bipolar pulse current induced microglia cell injury through modulating autophagy and MAPK pathway.

Concepts: Organelle, Injury, Programmed cell death, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Visual impairment, Optic nerve, Blindness, Damage


The presence of senescent, transformed or damaged cells can impair tissue function or lead to tumorigenesis; therefore, organisms have evolved quality control mechanisms to eliminate them. Here, we show that YAP activation induced by inactivation of the Hippo pathway specifically in damaged hepatocytes promotes their selective elimination by using in vivo mosaic analysis in mouse liver. These damaged hepatocytes migrate into the hepatic sinusoids, undergo apoptosis and are engulfed by Kupffer cells. In contrast, YAP activation in undamaged hepatocytes leads to proliferation. Cellular stresses such as ethanol that damage both liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes switch cell fate from proliferation to migration/apoptosis in the presence of activated YAP. This involves the activation of CDC42 and Rac that regulate cell migration. Thus, we suggest that YAP acts as a stress sensor that induces elimination of injured cells to maintain tissue and organ homeostasis.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Organism, Glucose, Liver, Organ, Hepatocyte, Damage


Hypothermia is present in up to two-thirds of patients with severe injury, although it is often disregarded during the initial resuscitation. Studies have revealed that hypothermia is associated with mortality in a large percentage of trauma cases when the patient’s temperature is below 32 °C. Risk factors include the severity of injury, wet clothing, low transport unit temperature, use of anesthesia, and prolonged surgery. Fortunately, associated coagulation disorders have been shown to completely resolve with aggressive warming. Selected passive and active warming techniques can be applied in damage control resuscitation. While treatment guidelines exist for acidosis and bleeding, there is no evidence-based approach to managing hypothermia in trauma patients. We synthesized a goal-directed algorithm for warming the severely injured patient that can be directly incorporated into current Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines. This involves the early use of warming blankets and removal of wet clothing in the prehospital phase followed by aggressive rewarming on arrival at the hospital if the patient’s injuries require damage control therapy. Future research in hypothermia management should concentrate on applying this treatment algorithm and should evaluate its influence on patient outcomes. This treatment strategy may help to reduce blood loss and improve morbidity and mortality in this population of patients.

Concepts: Blood, Patient, Hospital, Surgery, Patience, Injury, Physical trauma, Damage


Tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal injury whose treatment is limited by ineffective therapeutic interventions. Previously we have shown that tendons ineffectively repair early sub-rupture fatigue damage. In contrast, physiological exercise has been shown to promote remodeling of healthy tendons but its utility as a therapeutic to promote repair of fatigue damaged tendons remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the utility of exercise initiated 1-day and 14-days after onset of fatigue damage to promote structural repair in fatigue damaged tendons. We hypothesized that exercise initiated 14-days after fatigue loading would promote remodeling as indicated by a decrease in area of collagen matrix damage, increased procollagen I and decorin, while decreasing proteins indicative of tendinopathy. Rats engaged in 6-week exercise for 30 minutes/day or 60 minutes/day starting 1 or 14 days after fatigue loading. Initiating exercise 1-day after onset of fatigue injury led to exacerbation of matrix damage, particularly at the tendon insertion. Initiating exercise 14-days after onset of fatigue injury led to remodeling of damaged regions in the midsubstance and collagen synthesis at the insertion. Physiological exercise applied after the initial biological response to injury has dampened can potentially promote remodeling of damaged tendons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Collagen, All rights reserved, Tendon, Copyright, Damage, Tendinopathy


The authors previously reported that inhaled xenon combined with hypothermia attenuates brain white matter injury in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Heart, Cardiac arrest, Asystole, White matter, Damage


The mechanisms of muscle injury repair after EPI® technique, a treatment based on electrical stimulation, have not been described. This study determines whether EPI® therapy could improve muscle damage.

Concepts: Muscle, Muscular system, Damage