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Concept: Daguerreotype

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How does volitional photo taking affect unaided memory for visual and auditory aspects of experiences? Across one field and three lab studies, we found that, even without revisiting any photos, participants who could freely take photographs during an experience recognized more of what they saw and less of what they heard, compared with those who could not take any photographs. Further, merely taking mental photos had similar effects on memory. These results provide support for the idea that photo taking induces a shift in attention toward visual aspects and away from auditory aspects of an experience. Additional findings were in line with this mechanism: Participants with a camera had better recognition of aspects of the scene that they photographed than of aspects they did not photograph. Furthermore, participants who used a camera during their experience recognized even nonphotographed aspects better than participants without a camera did. Meta-analyses including all reported studies support these findings.

Concepts: Photography, Camera, Photograph, Photographs, Daguerreotype

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Pinterest (San Francisco, CA) and Instagram (Menlo Park, CA) are 2 popular photo-sharing social media platforms among young individuals. We assessed differences between Instagram and Pinterest in relaying photographic information regarding Zika virus. Specifically, we investigated whether the percentage of Zika-virus-related photos with Spanish or Portuguese texts embedded therein was higher for Instagram than for Pinterest and whether the contents of Zika-virus-related photos shared on Pinterest were different from those shared on Instagram.

Concepts: United States, Photography, Photograph, Photo sharing, Social media, Daguerreotype, Menlo Park

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Computer software allows a photograph of patient’s face and a photograph of their dental casts to be combined into one image, similar to that seen in a lateral cephalogram. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between the measurements carried out on this novel composite photographic image and those taken from a lateral cephalogram of the same patient.

Concepts: Computer, Computer program, Photography, Microsoft, Computer software, Photograph, Daguerreotype

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To determine the reproducibility of optic disc photograph grading obtained by a hand-held fundus camera and to determine the diagnostic value of these photographs in detecting patients with glaucoma in a community-based glaucoma-detection program.

Concepts: Greek loanwords, Ophthalmology, Project management, Photography, Camera, Photograph, Daguerreotype

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In this paper we study a novel problem of classifying covert photos, whose acquisition processes are intentionally concealed from the subjects being photographed. Covert photos are often privacy invasive and, if distributed over Internet, can cause serious consequences. Automatic identification of such photos therefore serves as an important initial step towards further privacy protection operations. The problem is however very challenging due to the large semantic similarity between covert and non-covert photos, the enormous diversity in the photographing process and environment of cover photos, and the difficulty to collect an effective dataset for the study. Attacking these challenges, we make three consecutive contributions: First, we collect a large dataset containing 2,500 covert photos, each of them is verified rigorously and carefully. Second, we conduct a user study on how humans distinguish covert photos from non-covert ones. The user study not only provides an important evaluation baseline, but also suggests fusing heterogeneous information for an automatic solution. Our third contribution is a covert photo classification algorithm that fuses various image features and visual attributes in the multiple kernel learning framework. We evaluate the proposed approach on the collected dataset in comparison with other modern image classifiers. The results show that our approach achieves an average classification rate (1ô€€€EER) of 0.8940, which significantly outperforms other competitors as well as human’s performance.

Concepts: Human, Photography, Photograph, Daguerreotype

0

In plastic surgery, patient photography is a vital component of clinical, educational, legal, and research documentation. Optimal acquisition of photographic data requires a dedicated photography studio or a three-dimensional anatomic scanner, both of which are financially impractical for most clinicians. Simplified photo standardization is proposed for use in random clinical settings by using a portable device called the Mirror Stand (MirS). This model device aims to mimic a studio environment by incorporating the basic elements of producing consistent photographs. The pilot MirS is designed for facial photography. Images of 40 random subjects were obtained using the MirS with three different cameras. Real anthropometric measurements of each subject were collected, compared with the photographic measurements, and analyzed. In this study, all three cameras produced equally reliable measurements. Actual facial measurements were comparable to the photogrammetric measurements obtained from photographs taken using the MirS. A constant formula was derived; it allowed the conversion of photographic values into real anthropometric values. The MirS produced consistent photographs with respect to the measurements. The photographs obtained could be translated reliably into their real anthropometric measurements. Therefore, the MirS can be applied in daily practice, providing an efficient alternative for obtaining a standard justifiable photograph.

Concepts: Optics, Greek loanwords, Photography, Camera, Photograph, International Organization for Standardization, Daguerreotype

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In 1885, Holloway Sanatorium, an asylum for the ‘mentally afflicted of the middle classes’ opened in Egham, Surrey, 20 miles outside London. Until 1910, photographs of about a third of the patients-both those ‘Certified Lunatic by Inquisition’ and the ‘Voluntary Boarders’ who admitted themselves-were pasted into the asylum’s case books. This paper analyses the photographs that were included in the very first of these, when there was a great uncertainty as to how to represent these patients, or whether to represent them at all. The photographs are unlike any other institutional images of the period, and raise critical questions about the imagined incompatibility between documentary photography and personal agency.

Concepts: Photography, Social class, Surrey, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Photojournalism, Daguerreotype