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Concept: Cytochrome P450 reductase

171

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.

Concepts: Metabolism, Enzyme, Electrochemistry, Catalysis, Nitrogen, Cytochrome P450, P450-containing systems, Cytochrome P450 reductase

166

We have previously described the development of genetic models to study the in vivo functions of the hepatic cytochrome P450 system, through the hepatic deletion of either cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR; HRN line) or cytochrome b5 (Cyb5; HBN line). However, HRN mice still exhibit low levels of mono-oxygenase activity, in spite of the absence of detectable reductase protein. To investigate whether this is because cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase can act as sole electron donors to the P450 system, we have crossed HRN with HBN mice to generate a line lacking hepatic expression of both electron donors (HBRN). HBRN mice exhibited exacerbation of the phenotypic characteristics of the HRN line - liver enlargement, hepatosteatosis and increased expression of certain cytochrome P450s. Also, drug metabolising activities in vitro were further reduced relative to the HRN model, in some cases to undetectable levels. Pharmacokinetic studies in vivo demonstrated that midazolam half-life, Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were increased, and clearance was decreased, to a greater extent in the HBRN line than in either the HBN or HRN model. Microsomal incubations using NADPH concentrations below the apparent Km of cytochrome b5 reductase, but well above that for POR, led to the virtual elimination of 7-benzyloxyquinoline turnover in HRN samples. These data provide strong evidence that cytochrome b5/cytochrome b5 reductase can act as a sole electron donors to the cytochrome P450 system in vitro and in vivo.

Concepts: Cytochrome P450, Paracetamol, CYP3A4, P450-containing systems, Cytochrome P450 reductase

28

Our aim was to characterize Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) related to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) related to involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes in a pharmacovigilance database.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Cytochrome P450, Adverse drug reaction, Cytochrome P450 reductase

28

NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two members of the diflavin oxidoreductase family, are multi-domain enzymes containing distinct FAD and FMN domains connected by a flexible hinge. FAD accepts a hydride ion from NADPH, and reduced FAD donates electrons to FMN, which in turn transfers electrons to the heme center of cytochrome P450 or NOS oxygenase domain. Structural analysis of CYPOR, the prototype of this enzyme family, has revealed the exact nature of the domain arrangement and the role of residues involved in cofactor binding. Recent structural and biophysical studies of CYPOR have shown that the two flavin domains undergo large domain movements during catalysis. NOS isoforms contain additional regulatory elements within the reductase domain that control electron transfer through Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin (CaM) binding. The recent crystal structure of an iNOS Ca(2+)/CaM-FMN construct, containing the FMN domain in complex with Ca(2+)/CaM, provided structural information on the linkage between the reductase and oxgenase domains of NOS, making it possible to model the holo iNOS structure. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the dynamics of domain movements during CYPOR catalysis and the role of the NOS diflavin reductase domain in the regulation of NOS isozyme activities.

Concepts: Electron, Metabolism, Enzyme, Cytochrome P450, Nitric oxide, Nitric oxide synthase, Enzymes, Cytochrome P450 reductase

27

Interindividual variability in cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated xenobiotic metabolism is extensive. CYP metabolism requires two electrons, which can be donated by NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) and/or cytochrome b5 (b5). Although substantial number of studies have reported on the function and effect of b5 in CYP-mediated catalysis, its mode of action is still not fully understood.

Concepts: Metabolism, Enzyme, Cytochrome P450, CYP1A2, Xenobiotic metabolism, P450-containing systems, Cytochrome P450 reductase, Xenobiotic

23

Cytochrome P450s are associated with metabolizing of a wide range of compounds including insecticides. CYP353D1v2 has been found over-expressed in the imidacloprid-resistant strain of Laodelphax striatellus. Thus, this study was conducted to express CYP353D1v2 in Sf9 cell as a recombinant protein, to assess its ability in metabolizing imidacloprid.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Metabolism, Endoplasmic reticulum, Escherichia coli, Cytochrome P450, Steroid, Cytochrome P450 reductase

3

Paraquat, a herbicide linked to Parkinson’s disease, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes cell death. Because the source of paraquat-induced ROS production remains unknown, we conducted a CRISPR-based positive-selection screen to identify metabolic genes essential for paraquat-induced cell death. Our screen uncovered three genes, POR (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase), ATP7A (copper transporter), and SLC45A4 (sucrose transporter), required for paraquat-induced cell death. Furthermore, our results revealed POR as the source of paraquat-induced ROS production. Thus, our study highlights the use of functional genomic screens for uncovering redox biology.

Concepts: Gene, Bacteria, Mitochondrion, Oxidative phosphorylation, Hydrogen peroxide, Cytochrome P450, P450-containing systems, Cytochrome P450 reductase

0

Here we describe a one-pot, three-enzyme, cascade involving a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, an alcohol dehydrogenase and a reductive aminase for the synthesis of secondary amines from cycloalkanes. Amine product concentrations of up to 19.6 mM were achieved. The preparative scale amination of cyclohexane was also demonstrated with a space-time yield of 2 g L(-1) d(-1).

Concepts: Alcohol, Amine, Metabolism, Cytochrome P450, Cytochrome P450 reductase

0

Sulfonated steroids are increasingly recognized as a circulating reservoir of precursors for the local production of active steroids in certain target tissues. As an alternative to sulfonation of unconjugated steroids by cytosolic sulfotransferases, their direct formation from sulfonated precursors has been described. However, productivity and physiological relevance of this sulfate pathway of steroidogenesis are still widely unclear. Applying the porcine testis as a model, conversion of pregnenolone sulfate (P5S, sulfate pathway) by CYP17A1 was assessed in comparison to the parallel conversions of pregnenolone (P5, Δ5-pathway) and progesterone (P4, Δ4-pathway). To characterize conversions in the virtual absence of competing enzyme activities, in a first series of experiments porcine recombinant CYP17A1 was incubated with the respective substrate in the presence of bovine recombinant cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5 (b5). Moreover, porcine testicular microsomal fractions were used as a source of homologous CYP17A1, CPR and b5. Invariably 17α-hydroxylation of P5S was, if at all, only minimal and no formation of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate from P5S was detectable. Consistent with earlier studies porcine CYP17A1 efficiently metabolized P4 and P5 in both assay systems. Metabolism of P4 and P5 by testicular microsomal protein varied substantially between the five animals tested. In conclusion, a physiologically relevant sulfate pathway for the production of C19-steroids from P5S via CYP17A1 is very unlikely in the porcine testis.

Concepts: Metabolism, Enzyme, Cytochrome P450, Steroid, CYP17A1, P450-containing systems, Pregnenolone, Cytochrome P450 reductase

0

The chemical 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used in agriculture as a herbicide. Its intensive use has an adverse effect on the environment. This study involved examining the degradation of 2,4-D compound by the filamentous fungus Umbelopsis isabellina. After 5 days of incubation, 98% of the herbicide (added at 25 mg L(-1)) was found to be removed. The elimination of 2,4-D by U. isabellina was connected with the formation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), which resulted in a 60% decrease in the sample toxicity toward Artemia franciscana larvae. The metabolism of 2,4-D was inhibited by the addition of metyrapone, a known cytochrome P450 inhibitor. It provides evidence that cytochrome P450 system is involved in 2,4-D metabolism in U. isabellina.

Concepts: Metabolism, Cytochrome P450, Paracetamol, Steroid, Cytochrome P450 reductase