SciCombinator

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Concept: Cyperus rotundus

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Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens. These biological activities were dose-dependent, increasing with higher dosage in a certain concentration range. The antibacterial effects of essential oil were greater against Gram-positive bacteria as compared to Gram-negative bacteria, and the antibacterial effects were significantly influenced by incubation time and concentration. These results may provide biological evidence for the practical application of the C. rotundus rhizomes essential oil in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Cell, Bacteria, Microbiology, Cyperus rotundus, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria

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Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the mouth. Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. This plant is a good source of carbohydrates and has many useful medicinal and aromatic qualities, though today it is considered to be the world’s most costly weed. Its ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans may have contributed to the unexpectedly low level of caries found in the agricultural population. Other evidence extracted from the dental calculus includes smoke inhalation, dry (roasting) and wet (heating in water) cooking, a second plant possibly from the Triticaceae tribe and plant fibres suggestive of raw material preparation through chewing.

Concepts: Food, Starch, Chemical compound, Dental caries, Dental plaque, Cyperus rotundus, Dentistry, Streptococcus mutans

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Volatile compounds play a key role in determining the sensory appreciation of vegetable oils. In this study a systematic evaluation of odorants responsible for the characteristic flavour of roasted tigernut oil was carried out.

Concepts: Fat, Cyperus rotundus, Essential oil, Oil, Oils, Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus

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Cedrol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, is the first identified oviposition attractant for African malaria vectors. Finding the natural source of this compound might help to elucidate why Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis prefer to lay eggs in habitats containing it. Previous studies suggest that cedrol may be a fungal metabolite and the essential oil of grass rhizomes have been described to contain a high amount of different sesquiterpenes.

Concepts: Malaria, Plant, Ethanol, Anopheles, Culicidae, Cyperus rotundus, Ginger, Anopheles gambiae

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The paucity of information in the literature on the characteristics of plants that could be used for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC)-contaminated sites was the principal reason for this study. The aim of the study was to identify indigenous plants growing in PHC-impacted soil in Umuahia in eastern-Nigeria that have the ability to phytoremediate soils contaminated with hydrocarbons under tropical monsoon climate conditions. A total of 28 native plant species from different families growing in and around hydrocarbon-impacted soil in the vicinity of vandalized pipelines carrying petroleum products were collected and studied for their ability to grow in a hydrocarbon-impacted soil and remove the PHC from the impacted soil. Some of the plants demonstrated the ability to grow in soil with high levels of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), which shows that they may be tolerant to hydrocarbons in soil and could potentially phytoremediate a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Chromolaena odorata, Aspilia africana, Chloris barbata, Pasparlum vaginatum, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Paspalum scrobiculatum, Cosmos bipinnatus, Eragrostis atrovirens, Cyperus rotundus, and Uvaria chamae showed tendencies to phytoremediate contaminated soil. By using bioaccumulation coefficient (BAC) as a measure of phytoremediation, results showed that C. odorata, A. africana, and U. chamae demonstrated the highest potentials to phytodegrade hydrocarbons in soil.

Concepts: Petroleum, Climate, Soil, Environmental remediation, Cyperus rotundus, Bioremediation, Soil contamination, Uvaria chamae

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Head Space/Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to determine the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. Facing co-eluting peaks in k samples, a trilinear structure was reconstructed to obtain the second-order advantage. The retention time (RT) shift with multi-channel detection signals for different samples has been vital in maintaining the trilinear structure, thus a modified multiscale peak alignment (mMSPA) method was proposed in this paper. The peak position and peak width of representative ion profile were firstly detected by mMSPA using Continuous Wavelet Transform with Haar wavelet as the mother wavelet (Haar CWT). Then, the raw shift was confirmed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) cross correlation calculation. To obtain the optimal shift, Haar CWT was again used to detect the subtle deviations and be amalgamated in calculation. Here, to ensure there is no peaks shape alternation, the alignment was performed in local domains of data matrices, and all data points in the peak zone were moved via linear interpolation in non-peak parts. Finally, chemical components of interest in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes were analyzed by HS-SPME-GCMS and mMSPA-alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) resolution. As a result, the concentration variation between herbs and their pharmaceutical products can provide a scientific basic for the quality standard establishment of traditional Chinese medicines.

Concepts: Discrete Fourier transform, Fast Fourier transform, Fourier transform, Convolution, Cyperus rotundus, Wavelet, Discrete wavelet transform, Continuous wavelet transform

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The compounds 1,8-cineole and zerumbone (ZER) from the Cyperus rotundus rhizome along with another 11 previously identified rhizome essential oil constituents and α-humulene, which lacks the only carbonyl group present in ZER, as well as binary mixtures of ZER and seven active compounds were tested for repellency to male B. germanica. The results were compared to N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet). In filter-paper choice tests, ZER was the most repellent compound, and α-humulene was ineffective, which indicates that the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group of ZER is a prerequisite component for repellency. At 81.5 μg cm-2, enhanced repellency was produced by binary mixtures of ZER and 1,8-cineole, (+)-dihydrocarvone or ®-(+)-limonene (70:30, 50:50 and 30:70 ratios by weight). These mixtures were very effective against male B. germanica within 24 h and were more repellent than a single compound or deet alone. The optimum ZER content was determined to be more than 50%. In Ebeling choice box tests at 652.4 μg cm-2, these compounds and deet resulted in complete repellency to intact male B. germanica, while they exhibited 35-47% repellency to antennectomized male one. Mixtures formulated from the active constituents of the C. rotundus rhizome could be useful as potential repellents for controlling B. germanica.

Concepts: Carbonyl, Chemical compound, Cyperus rotundus, Insect repellent

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Cyprotuoside C (1) and cyprotuoside D (2), two new cycloartane glycosides were isolated from the ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus. Their structures were identified as 24R-9, 10-seco-cycloartan-1 (10), 9 (11)-dien-3β, 7β, 24, 25-tetraol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-25-O-β-D-glucuronide (1) and 9, 10-seco-cycloartan-1 (10), 9 (11), 23 (24)-trien-3β, 7β, 25-triol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-{α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-[ α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-]}-β-D-glucopyranosyl-25-O-β-D-glucuronide (2) by spectroscopic methods.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Cyperus rotundus

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Trimad is an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation consisting of tubers of Mustaka (Cyperus rotundus), fruits of Vidanga (Embelia ribes) and roots of Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica). It is recommended in Ayurveda for the management of obesity. However, there is no documented evidence about its safety and efficacy. Hence, as a first step, we carried out a survey to find out its usage by Ayurvedic physicians and their personal clinical experiences while using the formulation.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Alternative medicine, Cyperus rotundus

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Out of 29 plant species taken into consideration for biodiversity investigations, the present study screened out Cyperus rotundus L., Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Croton bonplandianus Baill., Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., and Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. as the most suitable metal-tolerant plant species (high relative density and frequency) which can grow on metal-laden fly ash (FA) lagoon. Total (aqua-regia), residual (HNO3) and plant available (CaCl2) metal concentrations were assessed for the clean-up of metal-contaminated FA disposal site using naturally colonized plants. The total metal concentration (in mg kg(-1)) in FA followed an order of Mn (229.8) > Ni (228.4) > Zn (89.4) > Cr (61.2) > Pb (56.6) > Cu (51.5) > Co (41.9) > Cd (9.7). The HNO3- and CaCl2-extracted metals were 0.57-15.68% and 0.03-7.82% of the total metal concentration, respectively. The concentration of Ni and Cr in FA in the present study was highest among the previously studied Indian and average world power plants and Cd, Ni, and Cr were above soil toxicity limit. The variation in total, residual, and plant-available metal (single extraction) concentration indicated the presence of different proportions of metals in FA lagoon which affects the metal uptake potential of the vegetation growing on it. It has been reported that plant-available metal extractant (CaCl2) is the most suitable extractant for assessment of metal transfer from soil to plant. However in the present study, Spearman’s correlation showed best significant correlation between total metal concentration in FA and shoot metal concentration (r = 0.840; p < 0.01) which suggest aqua-regia as the best extractant for understanding the bioavailability and transfer of metal, and in calculation of BCF for moderately contaminated site. It can be stated that plant-available extractant is not always suitable for understanding the availability of metal, but total metal concentration can provide a better insight especially for moderate or low metal-contaminated sites. Principle component analysis revealed that all the plants showed positive correlation with Co and Cd which suggest its subsequent uptake in root and shoot. The biological indices (BCF, BAF, and TF) revealed that E. prostrata (10 mg Cd kg(-1)) and C. procera (3.5 mg Cd kg(-1)) can be utilized efficiently for the phytoextraction of Cd and phytostabilization of other potentially toxic metals (Pb, Cr, and Co) from FA lagoon. All the plants were tolerant to Pb pollution (TF > 1, BAF > 1, and BCF > 1); hence, there was a negligible translocation of Pb to the aerial tissues of these plants which shows their suitability in phytostabilization. In addition, V. cinerea accumulated elevated concentration of potentially toxic Cr (50 mg Cr kg(-1)) and Ni (67 mg Ni kg(-1)) which could also help in the phytoremediation of FA lagoon.

Concepts: Plant, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, Metal, Correlation and dependence, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Cyperus rotundus, Heavy metal music, Chromium