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Concept: Cymbopogon citratus

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This article describes the various chemical components as obtained from the oils in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Furthermore, extractions of the oils were also carried out with a slight in pH variation and compared, “GC-MS evaluation of C. citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods” (Ajayi et al., 2016 [1]). The current article contains one table exhibiting a list of compounds in the four different methods of extraction. Comparative studies amongst the various methods of extraction are highlighted in the table.

Concepts: Chemical compound, Essential oil, Oil, Oils, Cymbopogon, Cymbopogon citratus

28

In spite of being a major vector for several domestic, medical, and veterinary pests, the control aspect of the common housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is often neglected. In the present study, the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major components were evaluated for control of housefly. The chemical composition analysis of C. citratus oil by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed citral (47 %) and 1,8-cineole (7.5 %) as principal components. The analysis of oil vapor by solid phase microextraction (SPME/GC-MS) showed increase in citral (74.9 %) and 1,8-cineole (8.6 %) content. Assay of oil against housefly larvae and pupae through contact toxicity assay showed lethal concentration (LC)(50) value of 0.41 μl/cm(2) and of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) of 77.3 %, respectively. Fumigation assay was comparatively more effective with LC(50) of 48.6 μl/L against housefly larvae, and a PIR value of 100 % against housefly pupae. The monoterpenes, citral, and 1,8-cineole, when assessed for their insecticidal activity against housefly larvae, showed LC(50) of 0.002 and 0.01 μl/cm(2) (contact toxicity assay) and LC(50) of 3.3 and 2.4 μl/L (fumigation assay). For pupicidal assay, both citral and 1,8-cineole had a PIR value of 100 %. High efficacy of citral and 1,8-cineole against housefly, established them to be an active insecticidal agent of C. citratus oil. The study demonstrates potentiality of C. citratus oil as an excellent insecticide for housefly control, and the results open up the opportunity of oil/monoterpenes being developed into an eco-friendly, economical, and acceptable product.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Insect, Chromatography, Efficacy, Muscidae, Housefly, Cymbopogon, Cymbopogon citratus

25

The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of theuse of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

Concepts: Food, Food preservation, Preservative, Essential oil, Oil, Oils, Cymbopogon, Cymbopogon citratus

24

To improve the performance efficiency of subsurface constructed wetlands (CWs), a variety of media have been tested. Recently, there has been a rising interest in biochar. This research aims to develop the effectiveness of sand media amended with biochar and two plants species (Melaleuca quinquenervia and Cymbopogon citratus) in removing phosphorus from sewage effluent in CWs. The experimental design consisted of vertical flow (VF) mesocosms with seven media treatments based on the proportions of biochar in the sand media which ranged from 0 to 25% by volume. During the first 8months, the mesocosms were loaded with secondary clarified wastewater (SCW) then septage was used for the remaining 8months. Inflow and outflow were monitored for total phosphorus (TP) and PO4-P. Plants were harvested at the end of the experiment and TP biomass was determined. Removal efficiencies of TP in the mesocosms loaded with SCW and septage ranged from 42 to 91% and 30 to 83%, respectively. Removal efficiencies of PO4-P ranged from 43 to -92% and 35 to 85% for SCW and septage, respectively. The results revealed that the sand media performed better than the biochar-amended media; increasing the proportion of biochar in the media decreased removal efficiency of phosphorus. However, after flushing due to major rain event, there was no significant difference between sand and sand augmented with 20% biochar. Total plant P ranged from 1.75g in the 20% biochar mesocosm to 2.10g in the sand only mesocosm. Plant uptake of P, at least in part, may be accredited for the better P removal efficiency in the sand media compared to the biochar-amended media.

Concepts: Plant, Water pollution, Marsh, Wetland, Sewage treatment, Wastewater, Cymbopogon, Cymbopogon citratus

13

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential anxiolytic effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) aroma in healthy volunteers submitted to an anxiogenic situation.

Concepts: Cymbopogon, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus

1

The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits. The in vitro anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of these oils were investigated, and the EO which was found to have the strongest activity of the 20 EOs examined, was investigated further to identify its components and bioactive compounds. The in vitro anti-allergic activity was determined by measuring the release of β-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells treated with the calcium ionophore, A23187. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide. Among the EOs examined, lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] elicited the strongest anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. A principal component of this EO is citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al) (74.5%), a mixture of the stereoisomers, geranial (trans‑citral, 40.16%) and neral (cis-citral, 34.24%), as determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The activities of citral and geranial are similar to those of lemongrass EO. These compounds elicited significant in vivo anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, suppressing an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, respectively. Our data demonstrate that lemongrass EO and its constituents, citral and geranial, may be a therapeutic candidate for allergic and inflammatory diseases.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Citrus, Anti-inflammatory, Fruit, Essential oil, Cymbopogon, Cymbopogon citratus

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Searching for new effective and safe treatment of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) parasite is mandatory. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Cymbagogon citratus (CcAE) against G. lamblia and to reveal the phenolic and antioxidant properties of CcAE.

Concepts: In vitro, Cymbopogon citratus

0

Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf) and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr leaves are used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have been performed on the biological activities of secondary metabolites extracted from these plants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the anti-neuro inflammatory and protective roles of the polysaccharides of these three plants have not yet been elucidated. This study aimed at investigating potential use of K. grandifoliola, C. sanguinolenta and C. citratus polysaccharides in the prevention of chronic inflammation.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Lipopolysaccharide, Cell wall, Anti-inflammatory, Polysaccharide, Cymbopogon, Cymbopogon citratus

0

Systemic candidiasis has become an emerging fungal infection in recent years. Anti-Candida resistance to conventional antifungal agents has subsequently increased. This study reported the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-Candida activity of Origanum majorana, Artemisia dracunculus, Cymbopogon citrate, Cinnamomum verum and Caryophyllus aromaticus essential oils. Different Candida species, from urine tracts of hospitalized patients, were included to be challenged with understudied essential oils. Chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis and antioxidant activity was measured using DDPH assay. MIC of these essential oils was evaluated using broth micro-dilution test. Caryophyllus aromaticus had the highest antioxidant activity while the lowest antioxidant activity was for Artemisia dracunculus. MICs of Cinnamomum verum, Caryophillium aromaticus, Artemisia dracunculus, Origanum vulgare and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils ranged from 125 to 175μg/mL (mean value: 147.7±25.5μg/mL), 700 to 1000μg/mL (mean value: 740.9±105.4μg/mL), 1000 to 2000μg/mL (mean value: 1454.5±509.6μg/mL), 173 to 350μg/mL (mean value: 208±55.8μg/mL) and 125 to 175μg/mL (mean value: 156.8±24.6μg/mL) for different Candida species, respectively. In general, natural compounds are suitable to be used as anti-Candida and antioxidant agents. However in this stage, these compounds could be applied as supplementary agents along with conventional antifungal drugs.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Antifungals, Candidiasis, Medicinal plants, Antifungal drug, Essential oil, Oregano, Cymbopogon citratus

0

The antimicrobial activity of lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil (EO) in the vapor phase on the growth of Penicillium expansum inoculated on bread was evaluated, followed by a sensory evaluation of the bread’s attributes after EO exposure. The lemongrass EO was extracted from dry leaves of lemongrass by microwave-assisted steam distillation. The chemical composition of the lemongrass EO was determined using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The refractive index and specific gravity of the EO were also determined. Bread was prepared and baked to reach two water activity levels, 0.86 or 0.94, and then 10 μL of P. expansum spore (106spores per mL) suspension was inoculated on the bread surface. Concentrations of lemongrass EO were tested from 125 to 4,000 μL/Lair, whereas mold radial growth was measured for 21 days. For sensory evaluation, breads were treated with lemongrass EO vapor at 0, 500, or 1,000 μL/Lairfor 48 h and tested by 25 untrained panelists. The EO yield was 1.8%, with similar physical properties to those reported previously. Thirteen compounds were the main components in the EO, with citral being the major compound. P. expansum was inhibited for 21 days at 20°C with 750 μL of EO/Lair, and its inhibition increased with increasing concentrations of EO. Sensory acceptance of bread exposed to vapor concentrations of 500 or 1,000 μL of EO/Lairor without EO was favorable; similar and no significant differences ( P > 0.05) were observed among them.

Concepts: Water, Chemical compound, Gas, Bread, Distillation, Vapor, Cymbopogon, Cymbopogon citratus