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Concept: Cycloplegia


The aim of the present meta-analysis is to compare the efficacy of cyclopentolate and tropicamide in controlling accommodation during refraction.

Concepts: Ophthalmology, Cycloplegia


Objective  To compare the Welch Allyn SureSight™ wavefront autorefractor with retinoscopy in normal dogs. Animals studied  Fifty privately owned dogs (100 eyes) of 20 breeds, free of ocular disease. Mean ± SD age: 5.7 ± 3.25 years (range: 6 months-13 years). Procedures  The refractive error was determined in each eye by two experienced retinoscopists using streak retinoscopy as well as by an autorefractor operated by two different examiners. Measurements were performed before and approximately 30-45 min after cycloplegia was induced by cyclopentolate 0.5% and tropicamide 0.5% ophthalmic solutions. Results  Mean ± SD noncyclopleged retinoscopy net sphere was -0.55 ± 1.14 (range: -3.75 to 3.5) diopters (D). Mean cyclopleged retinoscopy net sphere was -0.52 ± 1.18 (range: -4.25 to 2) D. Mean ± SD noncyclopleged autorefractor spherical equivalent (SE) was -0.42 ± 1.13 D (range: -3.36 to 2.73) D. Mean cyclopleged autorefractor SE was 0.10 ± 1.47 (range: -5.62 to 3.19) D. Noncyclopleged autorefraction results were not significantly different from streak retinoscopy (whether noncyclopleged or cyclopleged, P = 0.80 and P = 0.26, respectively). Cyclopleged autorefraction results were significantly different from noncyclopleged or cyclopleged streak retinoscopy (P < 0.0001 in both states). There was no significant difference between noncyclopleged and cyclopleged streak retinoscopy (P = 0.97). Conclusions  Noncyclopleged autorefraction shows good agreement with streak retinoscopy in dogs and may be a useful clinical technique. Cycloplegia does not significantly affect streak retinoscopy results in dogs.

Concepts: Eye, Ophthalmology, Sphere, Cycloplegia, Refractive error, Welch Regiment, Compact space, Retinoscopy


PURPOSE: The prevalence of refractive errors in children has been extensively researched. Comparisons between studies can, however, be compromised because of differences between accommodation control methods and techniques used for measuring refractive error. The aim of this study was to compare spherical refractive error results obtained at baseline and using two different accommodation control methods-extended optical fogging and cycloplegia-for two measurement techniques-autorefraction and retinoscopy. METHODS: Participants included 25 school children aged 6 to 13 years (mean age, 9.52 ± 2.06 years). The refractive error of one eye was measured at baseline and again under two different accommodation control conditions: extended optical fogging (+2.00DS for 20 minutes) and cycloplegia (1% cyclopentolate). Autorefraction and retinoscopy were both used to measure the most plus spherical power for each condition. RESULTS: A significant interaction was demonstrated between measurement technique and accommodation control method (p = 0.036), with significant differences in spherical power evident between accommodation control methods for each of the measurement techniques (p < 0.005). For retinoscopy, refractive errors were significantly more positive for cycloplegia compared with optical fogging, which were in turn significantly more positive than baseline; whereas for autorefraction, there were significant differences between cycloplegia and extended optical fogging and between cycloplegia and baseline only. CONCLUSIONS: Determination of refractive error under cycloplegia elicits more plus than using extended optical fogging as a method to relax accommodation. These findings support the use of cycloplegic refraction compared with extended optical fogging as a means of controlling accommodation for population-based refractive error studies in children.

Concepts: Refraction, Measurement, Ophthalmology, Myopia, Cycloplegia, Refractive error, Retinoscopy, Eye care professional


Purpose: To explore risk factors for myopia in 12-13-year-old children in Northern Ireland (NI). Methods: Stratified random sampling was performed to obtain representation of schools and children. Cycloplegia was achieved using cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1%. Distance autorefraction was measured using the Shin-Nippon SRW-5000. Height and weight were measured. Parents and children completed a questionnaire including questions on parental history of myopia, sociodemographic factors, childhood levels of near vision and physical activity to identify potential risk factors for myopia. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent ≤-0.50D in either eye. Results: Data from 661 white children aged 12-13-years showed that regular physical activity was associated with a lower estimated prevalence of myopia as compared with sedentary lifestyles (odds ratio (OR) =0.46 adjusted for age, sex, deprivation score, family size, school type, urbanicity, 95%CI 0.23 to 0.90, p for trend = 0.027). The odds of myopia were more than 2.5 times higher amongst children attending academically-selective-schools (adjusted OR=2.66, 95%CI 1.48 to 4.78) compared to non- academically-selective-schools. There was no evidence of an effect of urban versus non-urban environment on the odds of myopia. Compared to children with no myopic parents, children with one or both parents being myopic were 2.91 times (95%CI 1.54 to 5.52) and 7.79 times (95%CI 2.93 to 20.67) more likely to have myopia, respectively. Conclusions: In NI children parental history of myopia and type of schooling, are important determinants of myopia. The association between myopia and an environmental factor such as physical activity levels may provide insight into preventive strategies.

Concepts: Family, Sampling, Medical statistics, Mother, Eyeglass prescription, Cycloplegia, Stratified sampling, Accommodation


To determine the effect of cyclopentolate, tropicamide, and artificial tear drops on higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in normal eyes with OPD-Scan III (Nidek Inc., Tokyo, Japan).

Concepts: Japan, Cycloplegia


To compare sphere and cylinder refraction values using retinoscopy and autorefraction under cycloplegic conditions in children.

Concepts: Ophthalmology, Cycloplegia, Mydriasis, Accommodation


To evaluate the effectiveness of a cycloplegic regimen using 0.5% tropicamide and 0.5% phenylephrine (Tropherine, Hanmi Pharm), in addition to 1% cyclopentolate, in hyperopic children.

Concepts: Cycloplegia, Tropicamide


Whether cycloplegics affect standard keratorefractometric and tomographic measurements is unknown. The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of cycloplegics (cyclopentolate and atropine) on corneal shape and refractive power of the eye.

Concepts: Tomographic reconstruction, Affect, Eye, Tomography, Atropine, Cycloplegia, Pupil, Cyclopentolate


Since age-related changes in lens elasticity and ciliary muscle contractility can affect how ocular parameters respond to cycloplegia, intraocular lens (IOL) power measurements calculated by formulas using anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT) or white-to-white (WtW) for effective lens position prediction can vary. In response, using swept-source optical biometry in pre-presbyopic and presbyopic eyes, we investigated changes in ocular parameters and IOL power calculations due to cycloplegia.

Concepts: Eye, Visual perception, Lens, Presbyopia, Cycloplegia, Intraocular lens, Ciliary muscle, Accommodation