SciCombinator

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Concept: Cyclophosphamide

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There is increased interest in using microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers in different diseases. Present in body fluids, it is controversial whether or not they are mainly enclosed in exosomes, thus we studied if urinary miRNAs are concentrated inside exosomes and if the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus with or without lupus nephritis modifies their distribution pattern. We quantified specific miRNAs in urine of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 38) and healthy controls (n = 12) by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR in cell-free urine, exosome-depleted supernatant and exosome pellet obtained by ultracentrifugation. In control group, miR-335* and miR-302d were consistently higher in exosomes than in exosome-depleted supernatant, and miR-200c and miR-146a were higher in cell-free fraction. In lupus patients, all urinary miRNAs tested were mainly in exosomes with lower levels outside them (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). This pattern is especially relevant in patients with active lupus nephritis compared to the control group or to the SLE patients in absence of lupus nephritis, with miR-146a being the most augmented (100-fold change, p<0.001). Among the exosomal miRNAs tested, only the miR-146a discriminates the presence of active lupus nephritis. In conclusion, urinary miRNAs are contained primarily in exosomes in systemic lupus erythematosus, and the main increment was found in the presence of active lupus nephritis. These findings underscore the attractiveness of exosomal miRNAs in urine, a non-invasive method, as potential renal disease markers.

Concepts: Cyclophosphamide, Lupus erythematosus, Rheumatology, Lupus nephritis, Glomerulonephritis, Systemic lupus erythematosus

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Non-adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) hampers the targets of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, obtaining low disease activity and decreasing radiological progression. This study investigates if, and to what extent, non-adherence to treatment would lead to a higher 28-joint count disease activity score (DAS28) in the first year after diagnosis.

Concepts: Uranium, Cyclophosphamide, Sulfasalazine, Methotrexate, Rheumatology, Hydroxychloroquine, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, Rheumatoid arthritis

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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous golimumab as add-on therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) treatment. To evaluate an intravenous plus subcutaneous (IV+SC) golimumab strategy in patients who had not attained remission. METHODS: GO-MORE was an open-label, multinational, prospective study in patients with active RA in typical clinical practice settings. In part 1, patients received add-on monthly 50-mg subcutaneous golimumab for 6 months. The percentage of patients with good/moderate European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28)-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) response was compared in patient subgroups with various concurrent or previous DMARD treatments. In part 2, patients with EULAR responses but not remission were randomly assigned to receive IV+SC or subcutaneous golimumab to month 12; DAS28-ESR remission was measured. RESULTS: 3366 patients were enrolled. At baseline of part 1, 3280 efficacy-evaluable patients had mean disease duration of 7.6 years and mean DAS28-ESR of 5.97 (SD=1.095). At month 6, 82.1% achieved good/moderate EULAR responses and 23.9% attained remission. When EULAR responses were analysed by the number of previously failed DMARD or the concomitant methotrexate dose, DMARD type, or corticosteroid use, no statistically significant differences were observed. Part 2 patients (N=490) who received IV+SC or subcutaneous golimumab achieved similar remission rates (∼25%). Adverse events were consistent with previous reports of golimumab and other tumour necrosis antagonists in this population. CONCLUSIONS: Add-on monthly subcutaneous golimumab resulted in good/moderate EULAR response in most patients; 25% achieved remission after 6 more months of golimumab, but an IV+SC regimen provided no additional efficacy over the subcutaneous regimen.

Concepts: Statistical significance, Cyclophosphamide, Sulfasalazine, Hydroxychloroquine, Rheumatology, Methotrexate, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, Rheumatoid arthritis

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To evaluate the impact of treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), including IL-6 receptor inhibitor tocilizumab (TCZ), on anaemia markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Concepts: Cyclophosphamide, Tocilizumab, Sulfasalazine, Rheumatology, Hydroxychloroquine, Methotrexate, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, Rheumatoid arthritis

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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with a broad spectrum of clinical and immunologic manifestations, of which lupus nephritis is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality. The development of nephritis in patients with SLE involves multiple pathogenic pathways including aberrant apoptosis, autoantibody production, immune complex deposition and complement activation. The 2003 International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classification system for lupus nephritis was widely accepted with high intraobserver and interobserver concordance to guide therapeutic strategy and provide prognostic information. However, this classification system is not based on the underlying disease pathophysiology. Some additional lesions that contribute to disease presentation, including glomerular crescents, podocyte injury, tubulointerstitial lesions and vascular injury, should be recognized. Although outcomes for patients with lupus nephritis have improved over the past 30 years, treatment of this disease remains challenging and is best approached on the basis of the underlying pathogenesis, which is only partially represented by the various pathological phenotypes defined by the ISN/RPS classification. Here, we discuss the heterogeneous mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis and how improved understanding of underlying disease mechanisms might help guide therapeutic strategies.

Concepts: Cyclophosphamide, Lupus erythematosus, Rheumatoid arthritis, Glomerulonephritis, Rheumatology, Lupus nephritis, Immune system, Systemic lupus erythematosus

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In the present study, we sought to evaluate the complement activation product C4d as a marker for lupus nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Concepts: Cyclophosphamide, Lupus erythematosus, Glomerulonephritis, Rheumatology, Lupus nephritis, Systemic lupus erythematosus

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To compare the risk of lupus-like events (LLEs) and vasculitis-like events (VLEs) in tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFi)-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to those receiving non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nbDMARDs).

Concepts: Arthritis, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxychloroquine, Rheumatology, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, Rheumatoid arthritis

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Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), affecting ∼50% of patients, and both renal disease and treatment-related toxicity contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. Although our understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of LN is improving, treatment still remains a challenge, with the achievement of complete remission at 1 year in <50% of patients treated with current standard of care immunosuppressive therapy; this is associated with considerable short- and long-term side effects, some of which further contribute to non-adherence. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have been successfully used in organ transplantation and there is increasing evidence that cyclosporin A (CSA), and especially tacrolimus (TAC), are also effective in the treatment of LN. Randomised controlled trials showed similar efficacy for TAC when compared with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and multitarget therapy, including TAC and low-dose MMF, and resulted in significantly more complete remissions and overall responses compared with intravenous cyclophosphamide (CYC). Flares are observed in up to 45% of patients with LN, and an increase in relapse rate following induction with CNIs may be an issue. Most studies on this matter have been restricted to patients from Asia, and studies in more balanced cohorts are desirable. Moreover, there is a need to understand and determine the long-term effects of CNIs on renal function, proteinuria and comorbidities, with a special focus on cardiovascular risk. In this 'Pros and Cons' debate, the potential benefits and disadvantages of CNIs in the treatment of LN will be critically highlighted.

Concepts: Nephrotic syndrome, Lupus nephritis, Cyclophosphamide, Rheumatoid arthritis, Mycophenolic acid, Immunosuppressive drug, Glomerulonephritis, Systemic lupus erythematosus

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Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a commensal bacterium representing one of the most important components of the skin microbiome, mostly isolated in the anterior nares. A higher rate of SA nasal colonization in patients affected by Wegener’s granulomatosis and rheumatoid arthritis compared with healthy subjects (HS) has been described. No studies focusing on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are available. We aimed at analyzing the prevalence of SA nasal carriers in an SLE cohort and evaluating correlation between nasal colonization and clinical, laboratory and therapeutic features.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Lupus erythematosus, Corticosteroid, Arthritis, Cyclophosphamide, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology