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Concept: Creatine

212

Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly).

Concepts: Time, Adenosine triphosphate, Obesity, Physical exercise, Exercise, Strength training, Creatine, Creatine supplements

7

To determine the effects of a low dose, short-term Creatine monohydrate (Cr) supplementation (0.03 g.kg.d(-1) during 14 d) on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.

Concepts: Effect, Effectiveness, Effects unit, Creatine, Creatine supplements

6

Creatine, a nitrogenous organic acid, replenishes cytoplasmic ATP at the expense of mitochondrial ATP via the phosphocreatine shuttle. Creatine levels are maintained by diet and endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine. Glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of creatine biosynthesis: the transfer of an amidino group from arginine to glycine to form ornithine and guanidinoacetate. We screened 36,530 third-generation germline mutant mice derived from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-mutagenized grandsires for intestinal homeostasis abnormalities after oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Among 27 colitis susceptibility phenotypes identified and mapped, one was strongly correlated with a missense mutation in Gatm in a recessive model of inheritance, and causation was confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9 gene targeting. Supplementation of homozygous Gatm mutants with exogenous creatine ameliorated the colitis phenotype. CRISPR/Cas9-targeted (Gatm(c/c)) mice displayed a normal peripheral immune response and immune cell homeostasis. However, the intestinal epithelium of the Gatm(c/c) mice displayed increased cell death and decreased proliferation during DSS treatment. In addition, Gatm(c/c) colonocytes showed increased metabolic stress in response to DSS with higher levels of phospho-AMPK and lower levels of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR). These findings establish an in vivo requirement for rapid replenishment of cytoplasmic ATP within colonic epithelial cells in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier after injury.

Concepts: Protein, Gene, Mutation, Amino acid, Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Epithelium, Creatine

5

Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and nitrate are popular supplements for improving exercise performance; yet have not been investigated in combination. We performed two studies to determine the safety and exercise performance-characteristics of creatine nitrate (CrN) supplementation.

Concepts: Performance, Creatine

4

Creatine is the most widely used supplementation to increase strength performance. However, the few meta-analyses are more than 10 years old and suffer from inclusion bias such as the absence of randomization and placebo, the diversity of the inclusion criteria (aerobic/endurance, anaerobic/strength), no evaluation on specific muscles or group of muscles, and the considerable amount of conflicting results within the last decade.

Concepts: Sociology, Creatine

4

Age-related sarcopenia and dynapenia have negative effects on strength and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Resistance training (RT) increases muscle mass and strength in older adults and is an established countermeasure for sarcopenia and dynapenia and creatine may enhance this effect. We aimed to determine whether the addition of Cr to RT increased gains in muscle mass, strength and function in older adults over RT alone by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Concepts: Energy, Effect, Muscle, Muscle atrophy, Sarcopenia, Effects unit, Meta-analysis, Creatine

2

To investigate the effects of a six-week plyometric training and creatine supplementation intervention on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during in-season training.

Concepts: Exercise, Creatine

2

Serum metabolite profiling in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may enable discovery of valuable molecular markers for disease progression and treatment response. Serum samples from 51 DMD patients from a natural history study and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers were profiled using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for discovery of novel circulating serum metabolites associated with DMD. Fourteen metabolites were found significantly altered (1% false discovery rate) in their levels between DMD patients and healthy controls while adjusting for age and study site and allowing for an interaction between disease status and age. Increased metabolites included arginine, creatine and unknown compounds at m/z of 357 and 312 while decreased metabolites included creatinine, androgen derivatives and other unknown yet to be identified compounds. Furthermore, the creatine to creatinine ratio is significantly associated with disease progression in DMD patients. This ratio sharply increased with age in DMD patients while it decreased with age in healthy controls. Overall, this study yielded promising metabolic signatures that could prove useful to monitor DMD disease progression and response to therapies in the future.

Concepts: Medicine, Metabolism, Mass spectrometry, Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Muscular Dystrophy Association, Metabolomics, Creatine

2

To assess the safety and tolerability of high-dose creatine, the feasibility of enrolling premanifest and 50% at-risk subjects in a prevention trial, and the potential of cognitive, imaging, and blood markers.

Concepts: Genetic disorder, Huntington's disease, Creatine

2

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on liver biomarkers of oxidative stress in exercise-trained rats.

Concepts: Rat, Creatine