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Concept: Council of Europe


To asses if the level of intention to engage others in academic transgressions was comparable among medical students from five schools from neighboring Southern-European countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia; and medical students from western EU studying at Split, Croatia.

Concepts: European Union, Europe, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbs, Serbia, NATO, Council of Europe, Croatia


 To evaluate safety alerts and recalls, publication of key trial outcomes, and subsequent US approval of high profile medical devices introduced in the European Union.

Concepts: European Union, United States, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Estonia, Council of Europe, European integration, Largest urban areas of the European Union


The 2014 European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) was negotiated in a changed policy context, following adoption of the EU’s ‘Smart Regulation’ agenda, which transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) anticipated would increase their influence on health policy, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which sought to reduce it. This study aims to explore the scale and nature of the TTCs' lobby against the EU TPD and evaluate how these developments have affected their ability to exert influence.

Concepts: European Union, Tobacco, United Kingdom, Council of Europe, Bulgaria, European integration, Directive, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union


The demographics of doctors working in the UK are changing. The United Kingdom (UK) has voted to leave the European Union (EU) and there is heightened political discourse around the world about the impact of migration on healthcare services. Previous work suggests that foreign trained doctors perform worse than UK graduates in postgraduate medical examinations. We analysed the prevalence by country of primary medical qualification of doctors who were required to take an assessment by the General Medical Council (GMC) because of performance concerns.

Concepts: European Union, United States, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Member State of the European Union, Europe, English language, Council of Europe


The current White paper summarizes the discussions and exchange of experiences during the first European Interdisciplinary Summit on Cell-Based ATMPs which was held in Vienna, Austria, May 02 - 03, 2013. The meeting was supported by the Research Networking Programme REMEDIC (REgenerative MEDICine) funded by the European Science Foundation, and by the British Medical Research Council. To improve the competitiveness of Europe in the field of cell-based Advanced Medicinal Therapy Products (ATMPs), the following key issues were identified during the meeting: removal of national hurdles in the European Union, harmonization of national and subnational differences in Hospital Exemption rules, improved treatment algorithms for reimbursement, better knowledge on the mode of action, predictive preclinical efficacy and safety testing, need for innovative systems for preclinical testing, appropriate product characterization, manufacturing with cost of goods in mind, and appropriate design of clinical trials.

Concepts: Medicine, European Union, United Kingdom, Europe, Council of Europe, Austria, Hungary, European integration


In 2010, EFOMP issued Policy Statement No. 12: “The present status of Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe. New perspectives and EFOMP recommendations” to be applied to education and training in Medical Physics within the context of the developments in the European Higher Education Area arising from the Bologna Declaration and with a view to facilitate the free movement of Medical Physics professionals within Europe. Concurrently, new recommendations regarding qualifications frameworks were published by the European Parliament and Council which introduced new terminology and a new qualifications framework - the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) for lifelong learning. In addition, a new European directive involving the medical use of ionizing radiations and set to replace previous directives in this area was in the process of development. This has now been realized as Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 which has repealed directive 97/43/Euratom. In this regard, a new document was developed in the context of the EC financed project “European Guidelines on the Medical Physics Expert” and published as RP174. Among other items, these guidelines refer to the mission statement, key activities, qualification framework and curricula for the specialty areas of Medical Physics relating to radiological devices and protection from ionizing radiation. These developments have made necessary an update of PS12; this policy statement provides the necessary update.

Concepts: European Union, European Commission, European Parliament, European Council, Regulation, Council of Europe, European Union law, Directive


European Union law prohibits companies from marketing drugs off-label. In the United Kingdom-as in some other European countries, but unlike the United States-industry self-regulatory bodies are tasked with supervising compliance with marketing rules. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize off-label promotion rulings in the UK compared to the whistleblower-initiated cases in the US and (2) shed light on the UK self-regulatory mechanism for detecting, deterring, and sanctioning off-label promotion.

Concepts: Pharmacology, European Union, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Europe, England, English language, Council of Europe


The UK scientific community is rightly concerned about the impact of leaving the EU on UK science. These concerns are particularly pertinent for mental health research, which is chronically underfunded in comparison to research on physical health conditions. The EU is one of the largest funders of mental health research in the world, with the UK clearly benefitting from this because of its strong track record. Any loss of funding, leadership or influence would weaken this. Likewise if we are unable to attract the best or most promising researchers from the rest of Europe, the loser will not just be research into mental health across Europe, but patients themselves. Those working on the Brexit negotiations must develop clear and coherent plans to safeguard scientific research in UK and ensure that the momentum gained in mental health policy in recent years is not lost.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, European Union, Science, Research, United Kingdom, Europe, Council of Europe


Tobacco is responsible for the death of 6 million people every year globally, of whom 700 000 are in Europe. Effective policies for tobacco control exist; however, the status of their implementation varies across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. In order to tackle the tobacco epidemic, action has been taken though the implementation of both legally binding and non-legally binding measures. This article aims to present the achievements and challenges of tobacco control in Europe, focussing on the available legally binding instruments such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revision of the Tobacco Products Directive at the European Union level. Tobacco still faces heavy lobbying of the tobacco industry, which has systematically contrasted policies to achieve public health objectives. The legal instruments for tobacco control in Europe presented here are not always adequately enforced in all the countries and there is certainly room for improving their implementation. Finally, the need for a strong political commitment towards the end-game of the tobacco epidemic is emphasised.

Concepts: European Union, United States, Tobacco, United Kingdom, Human rights, Europe, World Health Organization, Council of Europe


Persons with psychosocial disabilities face disparate access to healthcare and social services worldwide, along with systemic discrimination, structural inequalities, and widespread human rights abuses. Accordingly, many people have looked to international human rights law to help address mental health challenges. On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) - the first human rights treaty of the 21st century and the fastest ever negotiated.

Concepts: Law, Human rights, United Nations, 21st century, Council of Europe, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International human rights law, Human rights abuses