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Concept: Corrugated fiberboard


This paper deals with the migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants, namely mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH), diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) and polyalphaolefins (PAO) from adhesives into dry semolina and egg pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard. Migration was monitored during its shelf life (for up to two years) simulating storage in a supermarket (packs on shelves) and conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil). Migration from the secondary packaging (transport boxes of corrugated board) was also studied for semolina pasta. After 24 months of exposure, semolina pasta stored on shelves reached 3.2 and 0.6 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, Migration from the adhesives used to close the boxes and from the transport boxes contributed about 30% and 25% of the total contamination, respectively. The highest contamination levels (14.5 and 2.0 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, after 24 months) were found in egg pasta stored on shelves (no adhesives), and seemed due to the highest contribution from the external environment.

Concepts: Petroleum, Aluminium, Recyclable materials, Pasta, Semolina, Packaging materials, Corrugated fiberboard, Paperboard


Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) is the most harmful ectoparasite of laying hens, represents an occupational hazard for poultry workers, and a growing threat to medical science per se. There is increasing demand for alternative products, including plant-derived acaricides, with which to control the mite. The present study investigated the efficacy of neem oil against D. gallinae on a heavily infested commercial laying hen farm. A novel formulation of 20% neem oil, diluted from a 2400-p.p.m. azadirachtin-concentrated stock (RP03™), was administered by nebulization three times in 1 week. Using corrugated cardboard traps, mite density was monitored before, during and after treatment and results were statistically analysed. Mite populations in the treated block showed 94.65%, 99.64% and 99.80% reductions after the first, second and third product administrations, respectively. The rate of reduction of the mite population was significantly higher in the treated block (P < 0.001) compared with the control and buffer blocks. The results suggest the strong bioactivity of neem, and specifically of the patented neem-based formulation RP03™, against D. gallinae. The treatment was most effective in the 10 days following the first application and its effects persisted for over 2 months. Further studies will aim to overcome observed side effects of treatment represented by an oily layer on equipment and eggs.

Concepts: Water, Petroleum, Effectiveness, Liquid, Chicken, Corrugated fiberboard, Paperboard, Cardboard


Various surfaces associated with the storage and packing of food are known to harbor distinct bacterial pathogens. Conspicuously absent among the plethora of studies implicating food packaging materials and machinery is the study of corrugated cardboard packaging, the worldwide medium for transporting fresh produce. In this study, we observed the microbial communities of three different store-bought fruits and vegetables, along with their analog cardboard packaging using high throughput sequencing technology. We further developed an anti-biofilm polymer meant to coat corrugated cardboard surfaces and mediate bacterial biofilm growth on said surfaces. Integration of a novel thiazolidinedione derivative into the acrylic emulsion polymers was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analysis and surface topography was visualized and quantified on corrugated cardboard surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured using q-PCR targeting the gene encoding 16s rRNA. Additionally, architectural structure of the biofilm was observed using SEM. The uniform integration of the thiazolidinedione derivative TZD-6 was confirmed, and it was determined via q-PCR to reduce biofilm growth by ~80% on tested surfaces. A novel and effective method for reducing microbial load and preventing contamination on food packaging is thereby proposed.

Concepts: DNA, Archaea, Bacteria, Microbiology, 16S ribosomal RNA, Packaging, Corrugated fiberboard, Cardboard


Chagas disease is a vector-borne and potentially fatal parasitic disease that is transmitted by the triatomine bug, a nocturnal feeding, flying arthropod, often referred to by its colloquial name, the “kissing bug.” Vector-borne transmission is considered the most important means of spreading Chagas disease in endemic and nonendemic areas. Corrugated cardboard boxes may accelerate the spread of these insect vectors to nonendemic areas through their ability to harbor and transport small terrestrial arthropods such as silverfish, termites, and cockroaches. We report the case of a patient living in northern California who presented to a community clinic 6 weeks after being bitten by a positively identified triatomine bug. A local pest control company identified a total of eight adult Triatoma protracta, nine nymphs, and two eggs; all within the patient’s bedding. No bugs were found outside of the patient’s bedroom. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed one adult female was positive for Trypanosoma cruzi via polymerase chain reaction. The patient’s bedroom doubled as an office and regularly received and stored corrugated cardboard shipping boxes. Corrugated cardboard boxes have been used to trap and study the triatomine bug. This is the first documented case that provides circumstantial evidence that corrugated cardboard boxes may be an inadvertent and unrecognized factor in the spread of Chagas disease.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Arthropod, Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, Reduviidae, Triatominae, Triatoma, Corrugated fiberboard


The effects of temperature and substrate size on the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay were tested using eight municipal solid waste components. Two sample sizes were tested; size-reduced particles (x < 2 mm) which are typically used for BMP assays and unground samples (x > 20-100 mm) more similar to an as-disposed condition. Two incubation temperatures (35 and 55 °C) were tested for each component. BMPs for office paper, newspaper, paperboard, and coated paper displayed little difference with regards to temperature or particle size. Mesophilic corrugated cardboard BMPs were significantly greater than their thermophilic counterparts. Hardwood, softwood, and cotton BMPs varied with particle size and temperature. Particle size reduction may increase the bioavailable carbon compounds for wood, but this step was not necessary to achieve similar methane yields for paper products. Extrapolating BMP results to predict landfill methane generation may have greater uncertainty for wood wastes and cotton textiles than paper products.

Concepts: Waste management, Paper, Wood, Waste, Corrugated fiberboard, Paperboard


In the present work, four types of newly chosen municipal solid wastes (Panax ginseng, spent tea residue, waste cotton cloth, and old corrugated cardboard) were studied as the promising sources for nanocellulose, which has efficiently re-engineered the structure of waste products into highly valuable nanocellulose materials. The nanocellulose was produced directly via a facile one-pot oxidative hydrolysis process by using H2O2/Cr(NO3)3 solution as the bleaching agent and hydrolysis medium under acidic condition. The isolated nanocellulose products were well-characterized in terms of chemical composition, product yield, morphological structure and thermal properties. The study has found that the crystallinity index of the obtained nanocellulose products were significantly higher (62.6-83.6%) than that of its starting material due to the successive elimination of lignin, hemicellulose and amorphous regions of cellulose, which were in good agreement with the FTIR analysis. The evidence of the successful production of nanocellulose was given by TEM observation which has revealed the fibril widths were ranging from 15.6 to 46.2nm, with high cellulose content (>90%), depending on the cellulosic origin. The physicochemical properties of processed samples have confirmed that the isolation of high purity nanocellulose materials from different daily spent products is possible. The comparative study can help to provide a deep insight on the possibility of revalorizing the municipal solid wastes into nanocellulose via the simple and versatile one-pot isolation system, which has high potential to be used in commercial applications for sustainable development.

Concepts: Cellulose, Corrugated fiberboard


The migration behavior of four photoinitiators (BP, EHA, MBP, and Irgacure 907) was studied by “printing” onto four different food packaging materials (Kraft paper, white cardboard, PE coated paper, and composite paper) and tracking movement into the food simulant-Tenax-TA. The results indicated that the migration of the photoinitiators was related to the molecular weight and LogKo/w of each photoinitiator. At different temperatures, the migration rates of the photoinitiators were different in papers with different thicknesses. The amount of each photoinitiators found in the food was closely related to the food matrix. The Weibull model was used to predict the migration load into the food simulants by calculating the parameters τ and β and determining the relationship of the two parameters with temperature and paper thickness. The established Weibull model was then used to predict the migration of each photoinitiator with respect to different foods. A two-parameter Weibull model fitted the actual situation, with some deviation from the actual migration amount.

Concepts: Temperature, Printing, Paper, Hunting, Packaging, Kraft paper, Coated paper, Corrugated fiberboard


Biomechanical load during the handling of commercial (cardboard box with and without cut out) and non-commercial boxes (cardboard box with a retreat on the bottom edges), on experienced compared to inexperienced subjects was evaluated. Thirty-seven inexperienced and twenty-one experienced workers handled all boxes at shoulder and ground levels. Biomechanical load on upper limb was investigated through posture and EMG recordings. Comfort and effort were assessed immediately after each handling. In general, experienced workers had low range of motion. On the other hand, EMG was similar between both groups, except when non-commercial boxes were handled in non-favorable heights. Comfort was higher when a non-commercial box was handled versus a commercial one, regardless of the group. Both groups had a lower biomechanical load when handling the non-commercial boxes compared to the commercial ones. However, experienced workers did not have the same advantage as inexperienced subjects when handling those new boxes. Practitioner Summary: Box designs favoring intuitive hand coupling and more efficient postures have potential to reduce the risk of upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders in inexperienced subjects. However, ergonomist has to deal with workers on different levels of experience. Results of this study can support the development of effective recommendations for the working context.

Concepts: Empiricism, Experience, Philosophy of science, Upper limb, Corrugated fiberboard, Carton


Austere US military bases typically dispose of solid wastes, including large fractions of food waste (FW) and corrugated cardboard (CCB), by open dumping, landfilling, or burning. Anaerobic digestion (AD) offers an opportunity to reduce pollution and recover useful energy. This study aimed to evaluate the rates and yields of AD for FW-CCB mixtures. Batch AD was analyzed at substrate concentrations of 1-50g total chemical oxygen demand (COD)L(-1) using response surface methodology. At low concentrations, higher proportions of FW were correlated with faster specific methanogenic activities and greater final methane yields; however, concentrations of FW ⩾18.75gCODL(-1) caused inhibition. Digestion of mixtures with ⩾75% CCB occurred slowly but achieved methane yields >70%. Greater shifts in microbial communities were observed at higher substrate concentrations. Statistical models of methane yield and specific methanogenic activity indicated that FW and CCB exhibited no considerable interactions as substrates for AD.

Concepts: Anaerobic digestion, Waste management, Methane, Chemical oxygen demand, Waste, Landfill, Methanogenesis, Corrugated fiberboard


Fourteen healthy male subjects slept from 13:30 to 15:30 under ambient temperature and relative humidity maintained at 15 °C and 60%, respectively. They slept under two conditions: in a sleeping bag on wooden flooring (Wood) and in a sleeping bag with corrugated cardboard between the bag and the flooring (CC). Polysomnography, skin temperature (Tsk), microclimate, bed climate, and subjective sensations were obtained. The number of awakenings in the CC had significantly decreased compared to that in the Wood. The mean, back, and thigh Tsk, and bed climate temperature were significantly higher in the CC than that in the Wood. Subjective thermal sensations were warmer in the CC than in the Wood. These results suggest that using corrugated cardboard under a sleeping bag may reduce cold stress, thereby decreasing the number of awakenings and increasing subjective warmth; the mean, back, and thigh Tsk; and bed climate temperature.

Concepts: Precipitation, Sleep, Sleep disorder, Temperature, Humidity, Relative humidity, Bed, Corrugated fiberboard