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Concept: Coronary catheterization

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Previous research has found that patients with acute cardiovascular conditions treated in teaching hospitals have lower 30-day mortality during dates of national cardiology meetings.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hospital, Cardiology, Cardiovascular disease, Coronary catheterization, Interventional cardiology, Troponin

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The benefit of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients presenting with stable chest pain has not been systematically studied. We aimed to assess the effect of CTCA on the diagnosis, management, and outcome of patients referred to the cardiology clinic with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Cardiology, Heart, Atheroma, Heart disease, Coronary catheterization

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Background Although P2Y12 antagonists are effective in patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes, the effect of the timing of administration - before or after coronary angiography - is not known. We evaluated the effect of administering the P2Y12 antagonist prasugrel at the time of diagnosis versus administering it after the coronary angiography if percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was indicated. Methods We enrolled 4033 patients with NSTE acute coronary syndromes and a positive troponin level who were scheduled to undergo coronary angiography within 2 to 48 hours after randomization. Patients were randomly assigned to receive prasugrel (a 30-mg loading dose) before the angiography (pretreatment group) or placebo (control group). When PCI was indicated, an additional 30 mg of prasugrel was given in the pretreatment group at the time of PCI and 60 mg of prasugrel was given in the control group. Results The rate of the primary efficacy end point, a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, urgent revascularization, or glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor rescue therapy (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa bailout) through day 7, did not differ significantly between the two groups (hazard ratio with pretreatment, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.25; P=0.81). The rate of the key safety end point of all Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding episodes, whether related or not related to coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG), through day 7 was increased with pretreatment (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.02; P=0.006). The rates of TIMI major bleeding and life-threatening bleeding not related to CABG were increased by a factor of 3 and 6, respectively. Pretreatment did not reduce the rate of the primary outcome among patients undergoing PCI (69% of the patients) but increased the rate of TIMI major bleeding at 7 days. All the results were confirmed at 30 days and in prespecified subgroups. Conclusions Among patients with NSTE acute coronary syndromes who were scheduled to undergo catheterization, pretreatment with prasugrel did not reduce the rate of major ischemic events up to 30 days but increased the rate of major bleeding complications. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo and Eli Lilly; ACCOAST ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01015287 .).

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Cardiology, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Atheroma, Clopidogrel, Coronary catheterization

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Background The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is an index used to assess the severity of coronary-artery stenosis. The index has been tested against fractional flow reserve (FFR) in small trials, and the two measures have been found to have similar diagnostic accuracy. However, studies of clinical outcomes associated with the use of iFR are lacking. We aimed to evaluate whether iFR is noninferior to FFR with respect to the rate of subsequent major adverse cardiac events. Methods We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial using the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry for enrollment. A total of 2037 participants with stable angina or an acute coronary syndrome who had an indication for physiologically guided assessment of coronary-artery stenosis were randomly assigned to undergo revascularization guided by either iFR or FFR. The primary end point was the rate of a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization within 12 months after the procedure. Results A primary end-point event occurred in 68 of 1012 patients (6.7%) in the iFR group and in 61 of 1007 (6.1%) in the FFR group (difference in event rates, 0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.5 to 2.8%; P=0.007 for noninferiority; hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.58; P=0.53); the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the difference in event rates fell within the prespecified noninferiority margin of 3.2 percentage points. The results were similar among major subgroups. The rates of myocardial infarction, target-lesion revascularization, restenosis, and stent thrombosis did not differ significantly between the two groups. A significantly higher proportion of patients in the FFR group than in the iFR group reported chest discomfort during the procedure. Conclusions Among patients with stable angina or an acute coronary syndrome, an iFR-guided revascularization strategy was noninferior to an FFR-guided revascularization strategy with respect to the rate of major adverse cardiac events at 12 months. (Funded by Philips Volcano; iFR SWEDEHEART ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02166736 .).

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Cardiology, Heart, Atheroma, Coronary catheterization, Acute coronary syndrome

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Coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention rely on the use of iodinated intravascular contrast for vessel and chamber imaging. Despite advancements in imaging and interventional techniques, iodinated contrast continues to pose a risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) for a subgroup of patients at risk for this complication. There has been a consistent and graded signal of risk for associated outcomes including need for renal replacement therapy, rehospitalization, and death, according to the incidence and severity of CI-AKI. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, prognosis, and management of CI-AKI as it applies to the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

Concepts: Nephrology, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Cardiology, Heart, Atheroma, Coronary catheterization, Angiography

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Rapid activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves outcomes for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but selected emphasis on minimizing time to reperfusion may lead to a greater frequency of false-positive activations.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Cardiology, Heart, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Atheroma, Coronary catheterization

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Aggressive dual antiplatelet therapy is associated not only with more bleeding, impaired wound healing, and potentially more solid cancer rates but it also causes higher infection risks including sepsis, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This may be especially true considering the alarming off-label use of prasugrel. A 65-year-old white male patient with a history of myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and implantation of 2 bare metal stents, was treated with off-label clopidogrel for 4 years, including a double daily dose (150 mg) for the initial 13 months. Still on clopidogrel, the patient was hospitalized with suspected pneumonia. A diagnostic cardiac catheterization revealed a 60%-70% blockage of the mid left anterior descending, but there was no need for coronary intervention. At discharge, clopidogrel 75 mg/d was switched over to off-label prasugrel 10 mg/d on top of aspirin (81 mg/d). On day 3 after prasugrel was given, a football-sized bruise appeared on the patient’s lower right abdomen, but computed tomography results were unremarkable. On day 6 after administration of prasugrel, the patient became dizzy, disoriented, confused, experienced difficulty breathing, severe headache, weakness, intensive petechial rash covering the entire body, and breathing difficulty requiring ventilation. Within 24 hours, the patient was unable to correctly identify his age; his eyes were pale in color to almost colorless and when hearing a sound he would turn his entire head toward the sound and he appeared to be blind. His lungs, liver, and kidneys began to show signs of failure over the next 5-9 days. Sixteen days after the administration of the first prasugrel dose, the patient died of sepsis complicated with SIRS. Aggressive off-label use of clopidogrel (double dose for 13 months, and >4 years overall duration), followed by off-label switchover to the highest daily dose (10 mg) prasugrel may trigger sepsis and fatal SIRS. The mechanism responsible for such harmful association is probably indirect, and involves the weakening of platelet-neutrophil-endothelial crosstalk necessary to combat infections, and/or keep inflammation from spreading.

Concepts: Inflammation, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Pneumonia, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, Coronary catheterization, Sepsis

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Older patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) are often lacking optimal support to continue rehabilitation after discharge from hospital. The objective of the study was to examine whether a home-based case management programme led by nurses can improve atherogenic risk factors, physical functioning, and mental health in the first year following discharge.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Stroke, Atheroma, Coronary catheterization, Infarction, Troponin, Emergency department

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It is unclear if holding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) prior to coronary angiography reduces contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). We undertook a randomized trial to investigate the effect of holding ACEI/ARB therapy prior to coronary angiography on the incidence of AKI.

Concepts: Cardiology, Diabetic nephropathy, Coronary catheterization, Angiotensin, Renin-angiotensin system, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Angiotensin II receptor antagonist, ACE inhibitor