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Concept: Coronary artery bypass surgery

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OBJECTIVESSternal wound complications following median sternotomy remain a challenge in cardiac surgery. Changes in both patient profile and type of operations have been observed in recent years. Therefore, we analysed current wound healing complications after median sternotomy at our centre.METHODSAll adult patients undergoing a median sternotomy between January 2009 and April 2011 were included in this retrospective analysis. Transplants and assist devices implantations were omitted. We assessed outcome, prognostic factors and microbiological results of standardized wound swabs.RESULTSIn total, 1297 patients with an average age of 67.0 ± 12.7 years were analysed. Operation types included 598 solitary coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs), 213 solitary valve procedures, 105 CABGs with aortic valve replacement and 116 solitary aortic operations or conduit implantations. Furthermore, 255 of the remaining 265 were combined or otherwise complex procedures. Superficial healing disorders occurred in 43 patients (3.3%), while 33 (2.5%) developed deep wound complications. Six patients with sternal wound complications (7.9%) died in-hospital. In 7 patients, no pathogen was identified and the wound appeared uninfected (21% of all deep complications or 0.05% of all patients). These healing disorders were considered deep dehiscences. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, BMI of >40 kg/m(2) and who underwent reoperation were prone to superficial infections. Risk factors for all deep sternal wound complications were insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, COPD and reoperation. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed ‘emergency’ as an independent prognostic factor for all sternal wound complications. Microbial swabs of the sternal wound were taken in 82 of the 1297 patients (6.6%). Pathogens of the normal skin flora represented the majority of pathogens in both superficial and deep wound complications. Eight patients with deep, but only 2 patients with superficial complications suffered from polymicrobial infections. All deep polymicrobial infections involved coagulase-negative Staphylococci.CONCLUSIONSWound complications following median sternotomy remain a challenge to cardiac surgery. Redo and emergency operations are the most important risk factors in this contemporary series. More efforts seem mandatory to decrease this arduous morbidity and the costs of prolonged treatment.

Concepts: Insulin, Sternum, Myocardial infarction, Wound, Median sternotomy, Heart, Diabetes mellitus, Coronary artery bypass surgery

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INTRODUCTION There is no research that evaluated the tendency to reduce the traditional cardiovascular risk in patients with different values of coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the CACS examination for the reduction of the global cardiovascular risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS Research was conducted as prospective single center study. 180 subjects (aged 58.8) were included in the trial. Calcifications in computed tomography were calculated using the Agatston scale and “2DVScore with Color” semiautomatic presets by 2 experts. The selected cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed along with clinical procedures. RESULTS Invasive coronary angiography was performed on 60 patients (33.2%). Among these, the invasive examination did not show significant changes in the coronaries of 26 patients (43.3%), while in the other 26 patients (43.3%), coronary angioplasty (stents) were performed. Qualification for cardiac surgery without stents implantation was taken for eight subjects (13.3%). CABG procedures were performed exclusively in group III who had a CACS≥400AU; while angioplasty was performed 10 times more frequently in group III as compared to group II. A significant correlation between the CACS and cardiovascular risks was observed related to age, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.  CONCLUSIONS The CACS results let to invasive coronary angioplasty to be performed in selected patients, or in some cases to qualify patients for coronary artery bypass grafts. This can strengthen the role of CACS as support for classic CVR risk evaluation. Additional continuing education about the role of the CACS should be implemented.

Concepts: Blood pressure, Atheroma, Angina pectoris, Heart, Myocardial infarction, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Cardiology, Atherosclerosis

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Background Patients with obstructive left main coronary artery disease are usually treated with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). Randomized trials have suggested that drug-eluting stents may be an acceptable alternative to CABG in selected patients with left main coronary disease. Methods We randomly assigned 1905 eligible patients with left main coronary artery disease of low or intermediate anatomical complexity to undergo either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (PCI group, 948 patients) or CABG (CABG group, 957 patients). Anatomic complexity was assessed at the sites and defined by a Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score of 32 or lower (the SYNTAX score reflects a comprehensive angiographic assessment of the coronary vasculature, with 0 as the lowest score and higher scores [no upper limit] indicating more complex coronary anatomy). The primary end point was the rate of a composite of death from any cause, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 3 years, and the trial was powered for noninferiority testing of the primary end point (noninferiority margin, 4.2 percentage points). Major secondary end points included the rate of a composite of death from any cause, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 30 days and the rate of a composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years. Event rates were based on Kaplan-Meier estimates in time-to-first-event analyses. Results At 3 years, a primary end-point event had occurred in 15.4% of the patients in the PCI group and in 14.7% of the patients in the CABG group (difference, 0.7 percentage points; upper 97.5% confidence limit, 4.0 percentage points; P=0.02 for noninferiority; hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.26; P=0.98 for superiority). The secondary end-point event of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 30 days occurred in 4.9% of the patients in the PCI group and in 7.9% in the CABG group (P<0.001 for noninferiority, P=0.008 for superiority). The secondary end-point event of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years occurred in 23.1% of the patients in the PCI group and in 19.1% in the CABG group (P=0.01 for noninferiority, P=0.10 for superiority). Conclusions In patients with left main coronary artery disease and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores by site assessment, PCI with everolimus-eluting stents was noninferior to CABG with respect to the rate of the composite end point of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 3 years. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; EXCEL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01205776 .).

Concepts: Atheroma, Coronary circulation, Angina pectoris, Heart, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis

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Background In patients who have acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, early revascularization of the culprit artery by means of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves outcomes. However, the majority of patients with cardiogenic shock have multivessel disease, and whether PCI should be performed immediately for stenoses in nonculprit arteries is controversial. Methods In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 706 patients who had multivessel disease, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock to one of two initial revascularization strategies: either PCI of the culprit lesion only, with the option of staged revascularization of nonculprit lesions, or immediate multivessel PCI. The primary end point was a composite of death or severe renal failure leading to renal-replacement therapy within 30 days after randomization. Safety end points included bleeding and stroke. Results At 30 days, the composite primary end point of death or renal-replacement therapy had occurred in 158 of the 344 patients (45.9%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group and in 189 of the 341 patients (55.4%) in the multivessel PCI group (relative risk, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01). The relative risk of death in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group as compared with the multivessel PCI group was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.98; P=0.03), and the relative risk of renal-replacement therapy was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.49 to 1.03; P=0.07). The time to hemodynamic stabilization, the risk of catecholamine therapy and the duration of such therapy, the levels of troponin T and creatine kinase, and the rates of bleeding and stroke did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Among patients who had multivessel coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, the 30-day risk of a composite of death or severe renal failure leading to renal-replacement therapy was lower among those who initially underwent PCI of the culprit lesion only than among those who underwent immediate multivessel PCI. (Funded by the European Union 7th Framework Program and others; CULPRIT-SHOCK ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01927549 .).

Concepts: Blood pressure, Atheroma, Heart, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Artery, Coronary artery disease, Atherosclerosis, Myocardial infarction

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Patients after prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) often need repeat percutaneous revascularization due to saphenous vein grafts (SVG) poor patency rates and higher risk of re-CABG. The data of different percutaneous revascularization strategies in patients with prior CABG is scarce.

Concepts: Artery, Atherosclerosis, Great saphenous vein, Coronary artery bypass surgery

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Distal transradial access in the anatomical snuffbox has advantages over standard access in terms of patient and operator comfort levels and risk of ischemia. Radial artery preservation could be a relevant issue in patients requiring multiple radial artery procedures and coronary bypass with the use of a radial graft. One relevant drawback is the challenging puncture of a small and weak artery, with a steeper learning curve.

Concepts: Coronary artery bypass surgery, Radial artery, Anatomical snuff box

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In some randomized trials comparing revascularization strategies for patients with diabetes, coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) has had a better outcome than percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to discover whether aggressive medical therapy and the use of drug-eluting stents could alter the revascularization approach for patients with diabetes and multivessel coronary artery disease.

Concepts: Medicine, Cardiology, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Myocardial infarction, Coronary artery disease, Coronary artery bypass surgery

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-Human or recombinant apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to increase high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity and to regress atherosclerotic disease in animal and clinical studies. CSL112 is an infusible, plasma-derived apoA-I that has been studied in normal subjects or those with stable coronary artery disease. This study aimed to characterize the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of CSL112 in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction.

Concepts: Stroke, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Artery, Angina pectoris, Atheroma, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis

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Background We previously reported that there was no significant difference at 30 days or at 1 year in the rate of the composite outcome of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or renal failure between patients who underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed with a beating-heart technique (off-pump) and those who underwent CABG performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (on-pump). We now report the results at 5 years (the end of the trial). Methods A total of 4752 patients (from 19 countries) who had coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to undergo off-pump or on-pump CABG. For this report, we analyzed a composite outcome of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, or repeat coronary revascularization (either CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention). The mean follow-up period was 4.8 years. Results There were no significant differences between the off-pump group and the on-pump group in the rate of the composite outcome (23.1% and 23.6%, respectively; hazard ratio with off-pump CABG, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.10; P=0.72) or in the rates of the components of the outcome, including repeat coronary revascularization, which was performed in 2.8% of the patients in the off-pump group and in 2.3% of the patients in the on-pump group (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.73; P=0.29). The secondary outcome for the overall period of the trial - the mean cost in U.S. dollars per patient - also did not differ significantly between the off-pump group and the on-pump group ($15,107 and $14,992, respectively; between-group difference, $115; 95% CI, -$697 to $927). There were no significant between-group differences in quality-of-life measures. Conclusions In our trial, the rate of the composite outcome of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, or repeat revascularization at 5 years of follow-up was similar among patients who underwent off-pump CABG and those who underwent on-pump CABG. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; CORONARY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00463294 .).

Concepts: Artery, Hypertension, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Angina pectoris, Coronary artery disease, Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Myocardial infarction

61

Better understanding of the relationship between obesity and postsurgical adverse outcomes is needed to provide quality and efficient care. We examined the relationship of obesity with the incidence of early adverse outcomes and in-hospital length of stay following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

Concepts: Coronary circulation, Coronary artery disease, Artery, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris